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Diverse Filipino Cultures Aeta, Ifugao & Bagobo 1 Piso Philippines Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (1989) (Indigenous)

Diverse Filipino Cultures Aeta, Ifugao & Bagobo 1 Piso Philippines Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (1989) (Indigenous)

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Diverse Filipino Cultures: Aeta, Ifugao & Bagobo 1 Piso Philippines Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (1989) (Indigenous)

Commemorative issue: Philippine Culture Decade

Reverse: Busts of three Indigenous Filipino individuals: Aeta, Ifugao, and Bagobo, representing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao over the fields of Banaue Rice Terraces, an Abaca plant and Zamboanga vinta sailboat, in celebration of the Philippine Culture Decade.

Obverse: Seal of the Republic of the Philippines
19 89
* 1-PISO *

Issuer Philippines
Period Republic (1946-date)
Type Circulating commemorative coin
Year 1989
Value 1 Piso (1 PHP)
Currency Piso (1967-date)
Composition Copper-nickel
Weight 9.5 g
Diameter 28.5 mm
Shape Round
Orientation Medal alignment ↑↑
Demonetized 05-01-2020
Number N# 6138
References KM# 251, Schön# 92

About the three groups represented on the coin:

The Aeta (Ayta /ˈaɪtə/ EYE-tə), Agta, or Dumagat, are collective terms for several Filipino indigenous peoples who live in various parts of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. They are considered to be part of the Negrito ethnic groups and share common physical characteristics of dark skin tones, short statures, curly to Afro-textured hair, and a higher frequency of naturally lighter hair colour (blondism) relative to the general population. They are thought to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations. Regardless, modern Aeta populations have significant Austronesian admixture and speak Austronesian languages.

Aeta communities were historically nomadic hunter-gatherers, typically consisting of approximately 1 to 5 families per mobile group. Groups under the "Aeta" umbrella term are normally referred to after their geographic locations or their common languages.


The indigenous peoples of the Cordillera Mountain Range of northern Luzon, Philippines are often referred to using the exonym Igorot people, or more recently, as the Cordilleran peoples. There are nine main ethnolinguistic groups whose domains are in the Cordillera Mountain Range, altogether numbering about 1.5 million people in the early 21st century.

Their languages belong to the northern Luzon subgroup of Philippine languages, which in turn belongs to the Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) family.

These ethnic groups keep or have kept until recently, their traditional religion and way of life. Some live in the tropical forests of the foothills, but most live in rugged grassland and pine forest zones higher up.


The Banaue Rice Terraces (Filipino: Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe) are terraces that were carved into the mountains of Banaue, Ifugao, in the Philippines, by the ancestors of the indigenous people. The terraces are occasionally called the "Eighth Wonder of the World". It is commonly thought that the terraces were built with minimal equipment, largely by hand. The terraces are located approximately 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) above sea level. These are fed by an ancient irrigation system from the rainforests above the terraces. It is said that if the steps were put end to end, it would encircle half of the globe.

Locals up to this day still plant rice and vegetables on the terraces, although more and more younger Ifugaos do not find farming appealing,[6] often opting for the more lucrative hospitality industry generated by the terraces. The result is the gradual erosion of the characteristic "steps", which require constant reconstruction and care. In 2010, a further problem encountered was drought, with the terraces drying up completely in March of that year.

Anthropologist Otley Beyer has estimated that the terraces are over 2000 years old, but several researchers dispute this and contend that they were built much later. There are also giant earthworms ("olang" in Ifugao) of the genus Pheretima or Polypheretima elongata which are blamed for causing damage to the terraces, as well as rodents of the genus Chrotomis mindorensis, and snails.


The Bagobo are one of the largest subgroups of the Manobo peoples. They comprise three subgroups: the Tagabawa, the Klata (or Guiangan), and the Ovu (also spelled Uvu or Ubo) peoples. The Bagobo were formerly nomadic and farmed through kaingin (slash-and-burn) methods. Their territory extends from the Davao Gulf to Mt. Apo. They are traditionally ruled by chieftains (matanum), a council of elders (magani), and female shamans (mabalian). The supreme spirit in their indigenous anito religions is Eugpamolak Manobo or Manama.


Abacá (/ɑːbəˈkɑː/ ah-bə-KAH; Filipino: Abaka locally [ɐbɐˈka]), binomial name Musa textilis, is a species of banana native to the Philippines, grown as a commercial crop in the Philippines, Ecuador, and Costa Rica. The plant, also known as Manila hemp, has great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, also called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf-stems. Abacá is also the traditional source of lustrous fiber hand-loomed into various indigenous textiles in the Philippines like t'nalak, as well as colonial-era sheer luxury fabrics known as nipis. They are also the source of fibers for sinamay, a loosely woven stiff material used for textiles as well as in traditional Philippine millinery.

The plant grows to 13–22 feet (4.0–6.7 m), and averages about 12 feet (3.7 m). The fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes; now most is pulped and used in a variety of specialized paper products including tea bags, filter paper and banknotes. It is classified as a hard fiber, along with coir, henequin and sisal.


Sailing the Sulu Seas

The vinta, together with pearl divers, and the Badjao boat dwellers, form the romance of the Sulu seas. The vinta's colorful sail decorates many a picture of southern Philippine sunsets beckoning the adventurous at heart to the joys and wonder of riding big waves.

Actually, the vinta is not safe for long ocean travel. It is a very small and unsteady sailboat, used only for short trips on days with normal breezes. Vinta is how the sailboat is called by the maritime people of the Sulu archipelago. Some say it may be a name coined by the Spaniards.

The boat is more commonly known as lepa-lepa or sakayan. The bigger boats used got crossing high seas are the kumpit and sahpit or the Indonesian parao. The sahpit is used as a large houseboat or for transportating cargo. The kumpit is notoriuous as the official carrier of sumgglers in the south and is said to outpace Navy patrol boats because of its powered engine. Except for small fishing boats, most boats in the high seas of Sulu have motors. The parao is fitted with an inboard Volvo engine and is widely known now as "volvo". Vintas with very colorful sails still abound along some seashores, especially of seaside resorts, for tourists who want a bit of romance and adventure. Zamboanga hosts a vinta regatta each year. A fleet of vintas crosses the close to 23 kilometer wide Basilan Strait. Watching the regatta can be a romantic adventure in itself.


Indigenous peoples of the Philippines
The Philippines consist of numerous upland and lowland indigenous ethnolinguistic groups living in the country, with Austronesians making up the overwhelming majority, while full or partial Negritos scattered throughout the archipelago. The highland Austronesians and Negrito have co-existed with their lowland Austronesian kin and neighbor groups for thousands of years in the Philippine archipelago. The primary difference is that they were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines, and in the process have retained their customs and traditions. This is mainly due to the rugged inaccessibility of the mountains and established headhunting and warrior cultures, which discouraged Spanish and American colonizers from coming into contact with the highlanders.

In the interest of clarity, the term indigenous as used in the Philippines refers to ethnolinguistic groups or subgroups that maintain lt of partial isolation, or independence, throughout the colonial era. The term indigenous when applied to the Philippine population can be a deceptive misnomer, connoting alien migrant populations who have over time become the majority ethnolinguistic and cultural group in the land and thereby pushing indigens to the fringes of socio-cultural inclusion, such as in the Americas, Middle East, Australia, or New Zealand. Contrarily, the vast majority of people in the Philippines descend from the same Austronesian and Australo-Melanesian ancestral populations indigenous to the archipelago, regardless of cultural, religious, ethnolinguistic or tribal affiliations.

Culturally-indigenous peoples of northern Philippine highlands can be grouped into the Igorot (comprising many different groups) and singular Bugkalot groups, while the non-Muslim culturally-indigenous groups of mainland Mindanao are collectively called Lumad. Australo-Melanesian groups throughout the archipelago are termed Aeta, Ita, Ati, Dumagat, among others. Numerous culturally-indigenous groups also live outside these two indigenous corridors.

According to the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino, there are 135 recognized local indigenous Austronesian languages in the Philippines. There are 134 ethnic groups in the Philippines, the majority of which are indigenous, though much of the overall Philippine population is constituted by only 8-10 lowland ethnic groups.


The coat of arms of the Philippines (Filipino: Sagisag ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Escudo de Filipinas) features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Tarlac) which were placed under martial law by Governor-General Ramón Blanco during the Philippine Revolution, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three major island groups of Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao.

On the blue field on the dexter side is the North American bald eagle of the United States, and on the red field on the sinister side is the lion rampant of the coat of arms of the Kingdom of León of Spain, both representing the country's colonial past. The current arms, which shares many features of the national flag, was designed by Filipino artist and heraldist Captain Galo B. Ocampo.


The Great Seal shall be circular in form. with the same specifications with the national Coat of Arms, surrounding the arms is a double marginal circle which the official name of the Philippines in Filipino was inscribed in.

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