Solar Lion (Sun in Leo) & Huma Bird 200 So'm Uzbekistan Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry Collage (Samarkand) (Bird of Paradise) Zodiac
Solar Lion (Sun in Leo) & Huma Bird 200 So'm Uzbekistan Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Samarkand) (Bird of Paradise) (Sher-Dor Madrasah) (1997) (Zodiac Leo)
Reverse: The image is of the sun with a face, rising over the back of a lion. The lion and sun (Solar Lion) motif is based largely on astronomical and astrological configurations, and the ancient zodiacal sign of the sun in the house of Leo. This symbol, which combines "ancient Iranian, Arab, Turkic and Mongol traditions", first became a popular symbol in the 12th century. This banknote's specific version of the Solar Lion image is based on a mosaic on Sher-Dor Madrasah portal at Registan Square in Samarkand. This mosaic is somewhat remarkable in that images of humans and animals are generally prohibited from Islamic art. Sher-Dor Madrasah, translated, means Madrassah with Lions. Registan Square is framed by three great Madrassahs of distinctive Islamic architecture, The Sher-Dor, featured on this banknote, the Ulugh Beg, the oldest of the three, and the Tilya Kori, the youngest of the three.
Lettering: 200 СЎМ
ЎЗБЕКИСТОН СЎМИНИ ҚАЛБАКИЛАШТИРИШ ҚОНУНГА МУВОФИҚ ТАЪҚИБ ҚИЛИНАДИ
Translation: Counterfeiting of the Uzbek so‘m is prosecuted in accordance to the law
Obverse: Huma Bird, in the State Seal of Uzbekistan.
The sun is rising over a valley. Bolls of cotton are on the left and sheaves of wheat are on the right. In the center, a right-facing Huma (or Khumo) is displayed with outstretched wings. This legendary bird symbolizes peace, happiness and striving for freedom. The crescent moon with star are symbols of Muslim blessing. The surrounding eight pointed star symbolizes unity. Beneath the name Uzbekistan is on the tri-colored flag.
Lettering: ЎЗБЕКИСТОН РЕСПУБЛИКАСИ МАРКАЗИЙ БАНКИ
ЎЗБЕКИСТОН СЎМИ РЕСПУБЛИКА ҲУДУДИДА ХАММА ТЎЛОВАР УЧУН ЎЗ ҚИЙМАТИ БЎЙИЧА ҚАБУЛ ҚИЛИНИШИ ШАРТ
Translation: Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan, The Uzbek so‘m must be accepted at face value for all payments in the republic
Watermark: Coat of arms
Security Thread Present
UV activity both sides
Period Republic (1991-date)
Type Standard banknote
Value 200 So‘m
200 UZS = USD 0.018
Currency Second soʻm (1994-date)
Size 145 × 77 mm
Number N# 203257
References P# 80
The Lion and Sun (Persian: شیر و خورشید, romanized: Šir-o xoršid, pronounced [ˌʃiːɾo xoɾˈʃiːd]; Classical Persian: [ˌʃeːɾu xʷuɾˈʃeːd]) is one of the main emblems of Iran (Persia), and was an element in Iran's national flag until the 1979 Iranian Revolution.
The lion and sun motif is based largely on astronomical and astrological configurations, and the ancient zodiacal sign of the sun in the house of Leo. This symbol, which combines "ancient Iranian, Arab, Turkic and Mongol traditions", first became a popular symbol in the 12th century. According to Afsaneh Najmabadi, the lion and sun motif has had "a unique success" among icons for signifying the modern Iranian identity, in that the symbol is influenced by all significant historical cultures of Iran and brings together Zoroastrian, Shia, Jewish, Turkic and Iranian symbolism.
Zodiacal and Semitic roots
According to Krappe, the astrological combination of the sun above a lion has become the coat of arms of Iran. In Islamic astrology the zodiacal Lion was the 'house' of the sun. This notion has "unquestionably" an ancient Mesopotamian origin. Since ancient times there was a close connection between the sun gods and the lion in the lore of the zodiac. It is known that, the sun, at its maximum strength between July 20 and August 20 was in the 'house' of the Lion.
Krappe reviews the ancient Near Eastern tradition and how sun gods and divinities were closely connected to each other, and concludes that "the Persian solar lion, to this day the coat-of-arms of Iran, is evidently derived from the same ancient [Near Eastern] sun god". As an example, he notes that in Syria the lion was the symbol of the sun. In Canaan, a lion slayer hero was the son of Baa'l (i.e. Lord) Shamash, the great Semitic god of the sun. This lion slayer was originally a lion. Another example is the great Semitic solar divinity Shamash, who could be portrayed as a lion. The same symbolism is observed in Ancient Egypt where in the temple of Dendera, Ahi the Great is called "the Lion of the Sun, and the lion who rises in the northern sky, the brilliant god who bears the sun".
According to Kindermann the Iranian Imperial coat of arms had its predecessor in numismatics, which itself is based largely on astronomical and astrological configurations. The constellation of Leo contains 27 stars and 8 shapeless ones. Leo is "a fiction of grammarians ignorant of the skies, which owes its existence to false interpretations and arbitrary changes of the older star-names." It is impossible to determine exactly what was the origin of such interpretation from stars. The Babylonians observed a heavenly hierarchy of kings in the zodiacal sign of Leo. They put the lion, as the king of their animal kingdom, into the place in the zodiac in which the summer solstice occurs. In the Babylonian zodiac, it became the symbol of the victory of the sun. Just as Jesus is called the Lion of Judah, and in Islamic traditions Ali Ibn Abu Talib is called the "Lion of God" (Asadullah) by Shiite Muslims, Hamzah, the uncle of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was also called Lion of God.
Living with Passion
Born with the Sun in Leo, you are likely to be motivated by the need to experience life from a place of fun, passion and creative self-expression.
Leo is the Fixed Fire sign of the Zodiac. Its symbolic qualities are described by the physical influence of the Sun. Leos can be gifted with outgoing qualities such as radiance, confidence and energy. These they freely share with those around. The Sun is at the centre of the solar system and the sign of Leo relates to qualities which encourage growth.
Most often, Leos feel the need to organize and lead. Because those with the Sun in Leo look at the world from a central point view, they see themselves as the focal point of everything. Because they see themselves as pivotal, they naturally feel entitled to rule.
At their best, Leos lead with generosity, warmth and strength. They are learning what it means to be confident, and encourage others to be the best that they can be.
The Registan was the heart of the ancient city of Samarkand of the Timurid Empire, now in Uzbekistan. The name Rēgistan (ریگستان) means "sandy place" or "desert" in Persian. The Registan was a public square, where people gathered to hear royal proclamations, heralded by blasts on enormous copper pipes called dzharchis - and a place of public executions. It is framed by three madrasahs (Islamic schools) of distinctive Islamic architecture. The square was regarded as the hub of the Timurid Renaissance.
The three madrasahs of the Registan are: the Ulugh Beg Madrasah (1417–1420), the Sher-Dor Madrasah (1619–1636), and the Tilya-Kori Madrasah (1646–1660). Madrasah is an Arabic term meaning school.
Below Source: https://www.orientalarchitecture.com/sid/1348/uzbekistan/samarkand/sher-dor-madrasa
Sher-Dor Madrasa (1619-36) (Persian: شیردار)
Sher-Dor Madrasa stands opposite the Ulugh Beg Madrasa in Samarkand's Registan, a square comprising three madrasas arranged in a kosh configuration (i.e., facing one another across a public square). It was constructed by Yalangtush Bakhodur (a.k.a., Yalangtush Bi Alchin), the military governor of the city who ruled at the behest of the Bukhara-based Janid dynasty.
The site of the madrasa was originally the khanqah of Ulugh Beg, a smaller building that was used as a Sufi lodge and hostel. Yalangtush demolished the khanqah and replaced it with the present madrasa, borrowing the layout and appearance of the Ulugh Beg madrasa even though it was already 200 years old. Although the floorplan is quite similar it lacks any mosque facilities, suggesting the students worshipped at the adjacent Kulkeltesh mosque which no longer survives.
One point of departure with Ulugh Beg's design is the decoration of the facade. While Ulugh Beg was content to use star-like geometric forms (a likely homage to his astronomical interests), Yalangtush sponsored a striking composition depicting two lions chasing deer. This motif, almost certainly borrowed from a contemporary work at the bazaar of Isfahan, Iran, was likely shocking to the city's Islamic elders, as the depiction of living animals or human beings is strongly proscribed. However, the design likely met approval with the ruling Khan, Imam Quli Khan, whose vizier Nadir divan Begi created a similar design for the eponymous madrasa in Bukhara.
Another difference from Ulugh Beg's model is the presence of two fluted domes over the corner classrooms on the west facade. Their existence suggests that the Ulugh Beg madrasa may have originally included domes of its own which were later removed, but there is no firm evidence either way.
The Huma (Persian: هما, pronounced Homā, Avestan: Homāio), also Homa, is a mythical bird of Iranian legends and fables, and continuing as a common motif in Sufi and Diwan poetry. Although there are many legends of the creature, common to all is that the bird is said never to alight on the ground, and instead to live its entire life flying invisibly high above the earth.
There are numerous folk interpretations of the name, among them that of the Sufi teacher Inayat Khan, who supposed that "in the word Huma, hu represents spirit, and the word mah originates from the Arabic 'Maʼa' ماء which means water."
...The Huma bird is said to never come to rest, living its entire life flying invisibly high above the earth, and never alighting on the ground (in some legends it is said to have no legs).
In several variations of the Huma myths, the bird is said to be phoenix-like, consuming itself in fire every few hundred years, only to rise anew from the ashes. The Huma bird is said to have both the male and female natures in one body (reminiscent of the Chinese Fenghuang), each nature having one wing and one leg. Huma is considered to be compassionate, and a 'bird of fortune' since its shadow (or touch) is said to be auspicious.
In Sufi tradition, catching the Huma is beyond even the wildest imagination, but catching a glimpse of it or even a shadow of it is sure to make one happy for the rest of his/her life. It is also believed that Huma cannot be caught alive, and the person killing a Huma will die in forty days.
In Ottoman poetry, the creature is often referred to as a 'bird of paradise'; early European descriptions of the Paradisaeidae species portrayed the birds as having no wings or legs, and the birds were assumed to stay aloft their entire lives.
In Attar of Nishapur's allegorical masterpiece The Conference of the Birds, an eminent example of Sufi works in Persian literature, the Huma bird is portrayed as a pupil that refuses to undertake a journey because such an undertaking would compromise the privilege of bestowing kingship on those whom it flew over. In Iranian literature, this kingship-bestowing function of the Huma bird is identified with pre-Islamic monarchs, and stands vis-a-vis ravens, which is a metaphor for Arabs. The legend appears in non-Sufi art as well.
The kingship-bestowing function of the Huma bird reappear in Indian stories of the Mughal era, in which the shadow (or the alighting) of the Huma bird on a person's head or shoulder were said to bestow (or foretell) kingship. Accordingly, the feathers decorating the turbans of kings were said to be plumage of the Huma bird.
Sufi teacher Inayat Khan gives the bestowed-kingship legend a spiritual dimension: "Its true meaning is that when a person's thoughts so evolve that they break all limitation, then he becomes as a king. It is the limitation of language that it can only describe the Most High as something like a king."
The Huma bird symbolizes unreachable highness in Turkish folk literature. Some references to the creature also appear in Sindhi literature, where – as in the diwan tradition – the creature is portrayed as bringing great fortune. In the Zafarnama of Guru Gobind Singh, a letter addressed to Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb refers to the Huma bird as a "mighty and auspicious bird".
The state emblem of Uzbekistan was formally adopted on July 2, 1992 by the newly establish Republic of Uzbekistan. It bears many similarities to the emblem of the previous Uzbek SSR, which Republic of Uzbekistan succeeded. Like other post-Soviet republics whose symbols do not predate the October Revolution, the current emblem retains some components of the Soviet one. Prior to 1992, Uzbekistan had an emblem similar to all other Soviet Republics, with standard communist emblems and insignia.
The coat of arms displays the natural wealth of the country. On the left there is a cotton plant, which has been immensely important to the country's industry and agriculture since the Soviet era as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the main producers and supplies of cotton in the entirety of the USSR, thus it is often called the white gold symbolizing its sheer significance. To the right is a wreath of wheat ears, symbolizing the country's wealth and prosperity. Together, both cotton and wheat plants are intertwined with the ribbon of the state flag, which portrays the peace and consolation of different peoples and ethnic groups living within the republic.
It is surmounted by the blue star of Rub El Hizb (۞) with white star and crescent inside, a symbol of Islam, which a majority of Uzbeks profess.
In the center, a right-facing Huma (or Khumo) is displayed with outstretched wings. This legendary bird symbolizes peace, happiness and striving for freedom. Enclosed by the Huma's wings is a depiction of the rising sun over mountains, overlooking green pastures. Two rivers, the Amu Darya and Sir Darya, flow from the mountains and crepuscular rays emanate from the rising sun at the rear of the emblem.
The Khumo is perched on a banner at the base of the cotton and wheat borders which bears the national colors and the name of the country in Latin script (Oʻzbekiston).
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