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Shiva and Parvati as Himalayan Musk Deer, Pashupatinath Temple 1 Rupee Nepal Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Ama Dablam) (Nandi Bull)

Shiva and Parvati as Himalayan Musk Deer, Pashupatinath Temple 1 Rupee Nepal Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Ama Dablam) (Nandi Bull)

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Shiva and Parvati as Himalayan Musk Deer, Pashupatinath Temple 1 Rupee Nepal Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Plumed Crown) (Pashupati) (Lord of the Animals) (King Birendra) (Perfume) (Nandi Bull) (Siva) (Ama Dablam Mountain)

Obverse: King Birendra Bir Bikram wearing royal plumed crown.
Pashupatinath Temple: the biggest Hindu temple of Lord Shiva in the world and the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu, located on the banks of the Bagmati river in Deopatan near Kathmandu.
Bronze plated statue of the sacred Nandi Bull at Pashupatinath Temple;
Flying Garuda angels.

Reverse: Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) [Actually a form of antelope]. "The musk deer has a waxy substance called musk that the male secretes from a gland in the abdomen. The deer use this to mark territories and attract females, but the musk is also used in the manufacture of perfumes and medicines."
"One legend says that Shiva and Parvati took the form of antelopes in the forest on the Bagmati river's east bank. The gods later caught up with him and grabbed him by one of his horns, forcing him to resume his divine form. The broken horn was worshipped as a linga, but over time it was buried and lost. Centuries later a herdsman found one of his cows showering the earth with milk, and after digging at the site, he discovered the divine linga of Pashupatinath."

Mt. Ama Dablam near Mt. Everest.
Coat of arms.
Bank logo.
Lettering: RE.1

Watermark: Royal Plumed Crown

Features
Issuer Nepal
King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah (1972-2001)
Type Standard banknote
Years 1993-1999
Value 1 Rupee
1 NPR = USD 0.0084
Currency Rupee (1932-date)
Composition Paper
Size 106 × 70 mm
Shape Rectangular
Number N# 201959
References P# 37

Wikipedia:
The white-bellied musk deer or Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster) is a musk deer species occurring in the Himalayas of Nepal, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and China. It is listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List because of overexploitation resulting in a probable serious population decline.

It was previously considered a subspecies of the Alpine musk deer, but was separated on the basis of different skull proportions.

The white-bellied musk deer has a waxy substance called musk that the male secretes from a gland in the abdomen. The deer use this to mark territories and attract females, but the musk is also used in the manufacture of perfumes and medicines.

During the day, white-bellied musk deer hide in dense cover and are shy and secretive. At night, they emerge to feed in more open habitats, and preferably select leaves of trees and shrubs with high protein and low fibre contents. During the winter, they subsist on poorer quality lichens, and even climb small trees to feed upon leaves that would otherwise be out of reach.

They are fairly sedentary occupying a small home range of up to 22 hectares. Male are fiercely territorial, only allowing females to enter their range. Territories are marked by carefully placed defecation sites and strong-smelling secretions, which are placed onto the surrounding plants. Males fight each other over females during the mating season, and use their long canines to fight and defend their territories. The females hide from all the commotion. For the males to attract the females and bring them out from hiding, they use their strong smelling musk.

Threats
As the musk the deer produces is in demand for the manufacture of perfumes and medicines, it is highly valuable. Since the species is endangered and hard to find, its value on the wildlife trade market is increased still further. The hunting and trade of the white-bellied musk deer is the main threat to the species. Deer musk may sell for as much as $45,000/kg, making it one of the most valuable animal-derived products in the world. Hunters catch and kill the deer using snares. Only males produce the musk, so this creates a problem because females and young are caught in the traps and killed.

Conservation
The white-bellied musk deer is protected by law in Bhutan, Nepal, and India. In China, hunting may be permitted in some areas, although a license is required. It is listed as an endangered species in Pakistan and is also found in a number of protected areas throughout; however, the uneven enforcement of legislation across its range has meant little impact on preventing the rampant trade in the species.[10] Improving the enforcement of antipoaching laws is a key priority for the conservation of this species.

Efforts being made
Captive farming for musk has been developed in China, and so far has shown that it is possible to extract musk from a deer without having to kill it. However, the captive deer succumb to disease and fighting and produce poorer quality musk. The killing of wild deer is thought to be the most cost-effective method of extracting musk. Open farming is a possible new way to extract the musk, whereby free-ranging or wild musk deer are caught and the musk then extracted, allowing the species to be conserved and survive.

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Ama Dablam is a mountain in the eastern Himalayan range of Province No. 1, Nepal. The main peak is 6,812 metres (22,349 ft), the lower western peak is 6,170 metres (20,243 ft). Ama Dablam means "Mother's necklace"; the long ridges on each side like the arms of a mother (ama) protecting her child, and the hanging glacier thought of as the dablam, the traditional double-pendant containing pictures of the gods, worn by Sherpa women. For several days, Ama Dablam dominates the eastern sky for anyone trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp. For its soaring ridges and steep faces Ama Dablam is sometimes referred as the "Matterhorn of the Himalayas."

Situated at a distance of 162 km north of the provincial capital of Biratnagar and 152 km northeast to Kathmandu, Ama Dablam is the third most popular Himalayan peak for permitted expeditions.

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Wikipedia:
Pashupatinath Temple (Nepali: पशुपतिनाथ मन्दिर) is a Hindu temple dedicated to Pashupati, and is located in Kathmandu, Nepal.

This temple was classified as a World Heritage Site in 1979. This "extensive Hindu temple precinct" is a "sprawling collection of temples, ashrams, images and inscriptions raised over the centuries along the banks of the sacred Bagmati river", and is one of seven monument groups in UNESCO's designation of Kathmandu Valley.

Pashupatinath Temple is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu. It is not known for certain when Pashupatinath Temple was built. But according to Nepal Mahatmaya and Himvatkhanda, the deity here gained great fame there as Pashupati. Pashupatinath Temple's existence is recorded as early as 400 CE. The ornamented pagoda houses the linga of Shiva. There are many legends describing how the temple of Aalok Pashupatinath came into existence here.

One legend says that Shiva and Parvati took the form of antelopes in the forest on the Bagmati river's east bank. The gods later caught up with him and grabbed him by one of his horns, forcing him to resume his divine form. The broken horn was worshipped as a linga, but over time it was buried and lost. Centuries later a herdsman found one of his cows showering the earth with milk, and after digging at the site, he discovered the divine linga of Pashupatinath.

According to Gopalraj Aalok Vhat, the temple was built by Prachanda Deva, a Licchavi king.

Another chronicle states that Pashupatinath Temple was in the form of Linga shaped Devalaya before Supuspa Deva constructed a five-storey temple of Pashupatinath in this place. As time passed, the temple needed to be repaired and renovated. It is known that this temple was reconstructed by a medieval king named Shivadeva (1099–1126 CE). It was renovated by Ananta Malla adding a roof to it.

The main temple complex of Pashupatinath and the sanctum sanctorum was left untouched, but some of the outer buildings in the complex were damaged by the April 2015 Nepal earthquake.

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Wikipedia:
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev (Nepali: वीरेन्द्र वीर विक्रम शाह) (28 December 1945 – 1 June 2001) was the king of Nepal from 1972 until 2001. As the eldest son of King Mahendra, he reigned until his death by assassination in the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre.

.....Democratic era
In 1990, a series of strikes and pro-democracy riots broke out in Nepal. Due to the riots, Birendra lifted the ban on political parties and agreed to become a constitutional monarch in April 1990. He appointed an independent Constitution Recommendation Commission to represent the main opposition factions and to prepare a new constitution to accommodate their demands for political reform. The commission presented him with the draft of the proposed constitution on 10 September 1990. The new constitution would make Birendra head of state of a constitutional monarchy with a system of multiparty democracy. The draft constitution was approved by the Prime Minister Krishna Prasad Bhattarai and his cabinet and so, on 9 November 1990, Birendra promulgated the new constitution transforming Nepal into a constitutional monarchy. Birendra appointed an interim government to pave the way for elections. To head this he chose Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, who he had imprisoned for several years. In a discussion on BBC radio, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai spoke of Birendra's impeccable personal manners and courtesy and his equally impeccable role as a constitutional monarch. Birendra, however, could not prevent the Nepalese Civil War, a conflict between Maoist rebels and government forces, which lasted from 1996 until 2006.

Assassination
Birendra and his whole family were gunned down by Crown Prince Dipendra at a royal dinner on 1 June 2001. Almost all of the royal family members were killed in the massacre except Gyanendra Shah, Birendra's younger brother. Dipendra was proclaimed the king but died a few days later of self-inflicted gunshot wounds sustained in the massacre. Consequently, Gyanendra was made the king.

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https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/nepal-puts-royal-crown-on-display-1.2290255

Nepal puts royal crown on display:
According to the government, the crown consisted of 730 diamonds, over 2,000 pearls, precious rubies and other gems

Published: October 15, 2018 20:04
Kathmandu:
Nepal on Monday put on display the royal crown used by former kings after 10 years of the abolition of monarchy in the Himalayan country.

Amid a special ceremony in the Narayanhiti Palace Museum in Kathmandu, Nepali Prime Minister K.P. Sharma Oli unveiled the royal crown, one of the most important symbols of monarchy used by kings for hundreds of years.

Nepal exhibited the crown, sceptre, tiara and the sword among other valuable items used by the former royal families, exactly a decade after Nepal was declared a federal republic country, the Himalayan Times reported.

Speaking at the ceremony, Oli said that the crown reflected the change in the political system of Nepal and the rich history of the country.

"We need to preserve and respect our history. The palace museum will be developed as a history museum that not just reflects about monarchy but also different dynasties and periods of Nepal, its culture and diversity."

According to the government, the crown consisted of 730 diamonds, over 2,000 pearls, precious rubies and other gems. The government said it had no estimate of the monetary value of the royal crown as jewellers called it a priceless artefact.

There was also no exact data about when and where the crown was made. The royal palace was converted into a museum after the abolition of the 239-year-old monarchy and departure of the last King of the Shah Dynasty Gyanendra Shah from the palace in 2008.

Although the museum was open for the public from 2009, some of the priceless items including the crown were not put on public display for security reasons.

Now, the spectacular crown has been kept inside a special bullet-proof glass box with layers of machinery and human security.

Among the 52 chambers in the palace, only 19 have been opened for public observation so far while the government has expressed its commitment to open up all soon.

https://gulfnews.com/world/asia/nepal-puts-royal-crown-on-display-1.2290255

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Wikipedia:
Before 2008:
....the coat of arms, generally consist[ed] of a white cow, a green pheasant (Himalayan monal), two Gurkha soldiers (one carrying a kukri and a bow, and the other a rifle), peaks of the Himalayas, two crossed Nepalese flags and kukris, the footprints of Gorakhnath (the guardian deity of the Gurkhas) and the royal headress. ...At the base of the design a red scroll carried the national motto in Sanskrit: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपी गरीयसी (jananī janmabhūmiśca svargādapi garīyasī), which translates as "Mother and Motherland are greater than heaven."

This derives from the phrase:

अपि स्वर्णमयी लंका न मे लक्ष्मण रोचते ।
जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी ।।

In English:

I care not for Lanka, Lakshmana, even though it be made of gold.
One's mother and one's native land are worth more even than heaven.

It was quoted by Rama when his brother Lakshmana expresses desire to stay back in Lanka.

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Wikipedia:
Nandi (Sanskrit: नन्दि) also known as Nandikeshwara or Nandideva is the bull vahana of the Hindu god Shiva. He is also the guardian deity of Kailash, the abode of Shiva. Almost all Shiva temples display stone-images of a seated Nandi, generally facing the main shrine.

According to Saivite siddhantic tradition, he is considered as the chief guru of eight disciples of Nandinatha Sampradaya, namely, Sanaka, Sanatana, Sanandana, Sanatkumara, Tirumular, Vyagrapada, Patanjali, and Sivayoga Muni, who were sent in eight different directions, to spread the wisdom. The Cham Hindus of Vietnam believes that when they die, the Nandi will come and take their soul to the holy land of India from Vietnam.

The Sanskrit word nandi (Sanskrit: नन्दि) has the meaning of happy, joy, and satisfaction, the properties of divine guardian of Shiva- Nandi.

It is recently documented, that the application of the name Nandi to the bull (Sanskrit: Vṛṣabha), is in fact a development of recent syncretism of different regional beliefs within Saivism. The name Nandi was widely used instead for an anthropomorphic door-keeper of Kailasha, rather than his mount, in the oldest Saivite texts in Sanskrit, Tamil, and other Indian languages. Siddhantic texts clearly distinct Nandi from Vṛṣabha. According to them, Devi, Chandesha, Mahakala, Vṛṣabha, Nandi, Ganesha, Bhringi, and Murugan, are the eight Ganeshwaras (commanders) of Shiva.

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