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  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
  • Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)
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Willow Gentian Flowers; Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Eagle)

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I'm Cheaper by the Dozen

Willow Gentian Flowers; Conservative Historian Nicolae Iorga & Cathedral of Curtea de Argeș 1 Leu Romanian Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Medicinal Herb) (Human Sacrifice) (Anti-Modern) (Wallachian Eagle) (Polymer)

Obverse: Willow gentian (Gentiana asclepiadea L., Gentianaceae) is a medicinal plant that is primarily used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in folk medicine. As a bitter raw material, it is also used in the food industry for liquors flavoring.
Portrait of historian Nicolae Iorga (1871-1940)
Coat of Arms of Romania and Wallachia.
Name of the issuing bank, the BNR logo, banknote denomination in digits and in words, authorized signatures of the Governor and Chief Cashier, issue date.
Lettering: BANCA NATIONALA A ROMANIEI 1
1 iulie 2005
GUVERNATOR CASIER CENTRAL
1 LEU
UN LEU
NICOLAE IORGA 1871-1940
Translation: NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA 1
1 JULY 2005
GOVERNOR GENERAL CASHIER
1 LEU
NICOLAE IORGA 1871-1940

Reverse: Cathedral of Curtea de Arge. [A legend tells of Radu Negru employing Meşterul Manole as architect. With Manole being unable to finish the walls, the prince threatened him and his assistants with death. At last Manole suggested that they should follow the ancient custom of placing a living woman into the foundations; and that she who first appeared on the following morning should be the victim. The other masons warned their families, and Manole was forced to sacrifice his own wife. Thus the cathedral was built.]
Ancient Wallachian Coat of Arms featuring an eagle holding a cross in its beak.
Banknote denomination in digits and in words, name of the issuing bank, the BNR logo in the upper right and lower left corners.
Legal provisions against counterfeiting: Printing and circulation of forged banknotes are punishable under law
Serial number - printed in black ink, vertically, on the left side; printed in red ink, horizontally, on the right side.
Lettering: 1
BANCA NATIONALA A ROMANIEI
FALSIFICAREA ACESTOR BILETE SE PEDEPSESTE CONFORM LEGILOR
UN LEU 1
Translation: 1
NATIONAL BANK OF ROMANIA
FORGERY OF THIS TICKETS IS PUNISHABLE BY LAW
ONE LEU 1

Watermark: Nicolae Iorga (See-through transparent eagle)

Features
Issuer Romania
Period Republic (1989-date)
Type Standard banknote
Years 2005-2020
Value 1 Leu
1 RON = USD 0.23
Currency Fourth leu (2005-date)
Composition Polymer
Size 120 × 62 mm
Shape Rectangular
Number N# 201653
References P# 117

Willow gentian (Gentiana asclepiadea L., Gentianaceae) is a medicinal plant that is primarily used in the treatment of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in folk medicine. As a bitter raw material, it is also used in the food industry for liquors flavoring.
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1383586621015756

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Named for King Gentius of Illyria (500 BC) who was reputed to have discovered the medicinal virtues of the genus, the 400 or so species of gentians provide some of the bluest plants in nature.

The willow gentian is a species from moist, open woodlands of central and Eastern Europe. It's one of the most admired of the family and is a tallish plant that produces long arching stems, the tips of which often touch the ground. In late summer they carry vivid blue bell like flowers on either side of the stem. A perfect plant for a choice position in the partially shady garden. Easy to grow in humus rich, moisture retentive soil.

Source: https://blackstemplants.co.uk/gentiana-asclepiadea.html

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Wikipedia:
Gentiana is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the gentian family (Gentianaceae), the tribe Gentianeae, and the monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae. With about 400 species it is considered a large genus. They are notable for their mostly large, trumpet-shaped flowers, which are often of an intense blue. The genus name is a tribute to Gentius, an Illyrian king who may have been the discoverer of tonic properties in gentians.

...Many beverages are made with gentian root. Gentiana lutea is used to produce gentian, a distilled beverage produced in the Alps. Some species are harvested for the manufacture of apéritifs, liqueurs, and tonics.

Gentian root is a common beverage flavouring for bitters. The soft drink Moxie contains gentian root. The Swiss apéritif Suze is made with gentian. Americano apéritifs contain gentian root for bitter flavoring. It is an ingredient in the Italian liqueur Aperol. It is also used as the main flavor in the German after-dinner digestif called Underberg, and the main ingredient in Angostura bitters and Peychaud's Bitters.

....Great yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea) is used in herbal medicine for digestive problems, fever, hypertension, muscle spasms, parasitic worms, wounds, cancer, sinusitis, and malaria, although studies have shown minimal efficacy beyond that of a placebo with regard to the treatment of anxiety and ADHD in children. It has been studied and proven in effectively managing dyspepsia.

Gentiana punctata leaves and roots have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally and externally as liqueur or tea for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, skin, locomotor system, liver and bile, and for pediatric problems, fever, flu, rheumatism, and gout.

Gentiana purpurea, Gentiana punctata, and Gentiana pannonica are used to produce bitter schnapps, traditionally used as digestive aid. In Ayurvedic medicine the endangered Indian gentian Gentiana kurroo has been used as medical herb, but has been replaced with the Himalayan plant Picrorhiza kurroa, Plantaginaceae or Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora (胡黃蓮 Hú Huáng Lián) from traditional Chinese medicine.

Symbolism
The gentian flower was used as the emblem of the Minamoto clan, one of the four great clans that dominated Japanese politics during the Heian period and went on to establish the first Shogunate in the aftermath of the Genpei War.[citation needed] It is the official flower of the German speaking community of Belgium.

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Wikipedia:
Nicolae Iorga (Romanian pronunciation: [nikoˈla.e ˈjorɡa]; sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga; 17 January 1871 – 27 November 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright. Co-founder (in 1910) of the Democratic Nationalist Party (PND), he served as a member of Parliament, President of the Deputies' Assembly and Senate, cabinet minister and briefly (1931–32) as Prime Minister. A child prodigy, polymath and polyglot, Iorga produced an unusually large body of scholarly works, establishing his international reputation as a medievalist, Byzantinist, Latinist, Slavist, art historian and philosopher of history. Holding teaching positions at the University of Bucharest, the University of Paris and several other academic institutions, Iorga was founder of the International Congress of Byzantine Studies and the Institute of South-East European Studies (ISSEE). His activity also included the transformation of Vălenii de Munte town into a cultural and academic center.

In parallel with his scientific contributions, Nicolae Iorga was a prominent right-of-centre activist, whose political theory bridged conservatism, Romanian nationalism, and agrarianism. From Marxist beginnings, he switched sides and became a maverick disciple of the Junimea movement. Iorga later became a leadership figure at Sămănătorul, the influential literary magazine with populist leanings, and militated within the Cultural League for the Unity of All Romanians, founding vocally conservative publications such as Neamul Românesc, Drum Drept, Cuget Clar and Floarea Darurilor. His support for the cause of ethnic Romanians in Austria-Hungary made him a prominent figure in the pro-Entente camp by the time of World War I, and ensured him a special political role during the interwar existence of Greater Romania. Initiator of large-scale campaigns to defend Romanian culture in front of perceived threats, Iorga sparked most controversy with his antisemitic rhetoric, and was for long an associate of the far-right ideologue A. C. Cuza. He was an adversary of the dominant National Liberals, later involved with the opposition Romanian National Party.

Late in his life, Iorga opposed the radically fascist Iron Guard, and, after much oscillation, came to endorse its rival King Carol II. Involved in a personal dispute with the Guard's leader Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, and indirectly contributing to his killing, Iorga was also a prominent figure in Carol's corporatist and authoritarian party, the National Renaissance Front. He remained an independent voice of opposition after the Guard inaugurated its own National Legionary dictatorship, but was ultimately assassinated by a Guardist commando.

..."Although Iorga's theory may be today [ca. 2009] no more than an exotic episode in the development of Balkan historiography, his formulation Byzance après Byzance is alive not only because it was a fortunate phrase but because it reflects more than its creator would intimate. It is a good descriptive term, particularly for representing the commonalities of the Orthodox peoples in the Ottoman Empire ... but also in emphasizing the continuity of two imperial traditions".

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Wikipedia:
The Cathedral of Curtea de Argeș (early 16th century) is a Romanian Orthodox cathedral in Curtea de Argeș, Romania. It is located on the grounds of the Curtea de Argeș Monastery, and is dedicated to Dormition of the Mother of God. The building is the seat of the Archdiocese of Argeș and Muscel.

The cathedral is faced with pale grey limestone, which was easily chiselled then hardened on exposure. The interior is of brick, plastered and decorated with frescoes. Nearby on the grounds stands the large Neo-Romanian style Royal Palace built in late 19th century.

Legends
Legends of Curtea de Argeș have inspired many Romanian poets, among them the celebrated Vasile Alecsandri. One traditional legend describes how Neagoe Basarab, while a hostage in Constantinople, designed a splendid mosque for the sultan, returning to build the cathedral out of the surplus materials.

Manole legend
A legend tells of Radu Negru employing a Meşterul Manole or Manoli as architect. With Manole being unable to finish the walls, the prince threatened him and his assistants with death. At last Manole suggested that they should follow the ancient custom of placing a living woman into the foundations; and that she who first appeared on the following morning should be the victim. The other masons warned their families, and Manole was forced to sacrifice his own wife. Thus the cathedral was built.

When Manole and his masons told the prince that they could always build an even greater building, Radu Negru had them stranded on the roof so that they could not build something to match it. They fashioned wooden wings and tried to fly off the roof, but, one by one, they all fell to the ground. A spring of clear water, named after Manole, is said to mark the spot where he fell.

This motif is widespread in South-East Europe, most notably also in Russia, like the blinding of the Masons of Saint Basil's Cathedral by Ivan the Terrible.

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http://www.tkinter.smig.net/Romania/MasterbuilderMyth/Masterbuilder.pdf

The Myth of the Masterbuilder

As the story begins, the Black Prince, the upper-class ruler, is walking along the Arges River with the masterbuilder, Manole, and nine skilled workmen. They are searching for a site where they can build a church. They come upon a shepherd who is playing a “doina” on his flute; a “doina” is a gentle, sad song. The Prince asks him whether he has seen any locations where there was an unsuccessful attempt to construct a building. The shepherd says that there is such a place, a place where “my dogs bark and bay.” The Prince chooses that location for the church and charges Manole to build the tallest church ever.

The workers build during the day, only to have their structure collapse during the night. The same thing happens day after day. The Black Prince threatens them with death if they cannot complete the church. One night Manole has a dream in which “a whisper from above” tells him that the building will continue to fall down unless they sacrifice a human being by enclosing her in one of the walls. And that person cannot be just anyone. It has to be the first woman, the beloved wife or sister of one of the builders, who comes to them the next day with their midday meal. They are enjoined not to warn their loved ones to stay away.

The next morning Manole climbs on the scaffolding and sees his wife, Ana, on the road bringing them their food and drink. He prays to God to send torrential rain that will prevent her from reaching him. Soon there is a horrible storm, but Ana somehow keeps coming closer and closer. Then he prays for a powerful wind that will stop her. God listens to his prayer. There is a gale, but she forges ahead and reaches the builders.

Manole, who loves his wife deeply, puts her within the construction site and says they will pretend to wall her in. As the building covers her more and more, she cries out about how scared she is and how much it hurts, but Manole continues building. She mentions that the wall is breaking her womb and the baby within it. Although enraged, Manole keeps constructing the wall around her. The language of the story is sensuous as it describes how “the wall covers Ana, up to her small ankles, up to her thin calves, up to her fragile ribs, up to her soft lips, up to her pretty eyes.”

Some time later, the Black Prince comes to pray at the completed church, which is the most splendid and stately house of worship in the world. He asks Manole and the workers, who are on the roof, whether they are capable of constructing another building that is even more beautiful. They boast that they are. The Black Prince proceeds to attempt to murder them by taking away the scaffolding and trapping them on the roof.

Manole and the workers have a desperate plan for survival. They make wings out of shingles so that they might try to fly off the roof. In attempting to escape, the workers fall to their deaths. When Manole is about to jump, he hears a voice from within the wall, “Manole, Manole, Master Manole, this wall is hurting me so. This wall is breaking my baby. My life is wasting away.” As he is listening to his wife’s voice, he jumps, crashes onto the ground, and dies there. The story ends, “And from that very spot, a quiet spring emerged. It was a spring with salty water like teardrops.”

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Wikipedia:
The coat of arms of Romania was adopted in the Romanian Parliament on 10 September 1992 as a representative coat of arms for Romania. It is based on the Lesser Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Romania (used between 1922 and 1947), redesigned by Victor Dima. As a central element, it shows a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak, and a mace and a sword in its claws. It also consists of the three colors (red, yellow, and blue) which represent the colors of the national flag. The coat of arms was augmented on 11 July 2016 to add a representation of the Steel Crown of Romania.

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Brother T
I highly recommend Elemintal for its wide...

I highly recommend Elemintal for its wide variety of currency in perfect condition and in protective cases, for fast shipping and for low prices. Among many other great deals, I just received a small mint banknote, 1 leu, from Romania. Beautiful on both sides, its obverse represents Nicolae Iorga!