Getúlio Vargas & Marajoara Motif 100 Reis Brazil Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry (Father of the Poor) (Pre-Columbian) (Indented) (Populist)
Getúlio Vargas & Marajoara Motif 100 Reis Brazil Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (Father of the Poor) (Gege) (President) (Pre-Columbian) (Matrilineal) (Goddess) (Indented Coin) (Populist)
Obverse:Portrait of Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (1882-1954), President of Brazil, first as dictator, from 1930 to 1945, and in a democratically elected term from 1951 until his suicide in 1954.
Lettering: GETULIO VARGAS
Reverse: Denomination above date encircled by Marajoara motif. The Marajoara or Marajó was an indigenous nation that inhabited the Marajó Island and the Amazon river in the Pre-Columbian era.
BRASIL 100 RÉIS
Period Republic of the United States of Brazil (1889-1967)
Type Standard circulation coin
Value 100 Réis (100)
Currency Real (1799-1942)
Weight 2.53 g
Diameter 16.87 mm
Thickness 1.4 mm
Orientation Coin alignment ↑↓
Number N# 10242
References KM# 544
Getúlio Dornelles "Gegè" Vargas (Portuguese: [ʒeˈtulju doɾˈnɛlis ˈvaɾɡɐs]; 19 April 1882 – 24 August 1954), also known by his initials GV and nicknamed "the Father of the Poor", was a Brazilian lawyer, politician, and dictator who served as the 14th and 17th president of Brazil. He was born in São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul to a powerful family, embarking on a quick military career before graduating from law school. His political career began with district attorney, soon becoming a state deputy prior to a short interim period. His return as a state legislator ended when he entered national politics, serving as a national lawmaker and presidential cabinet member before departing to head Rio Grande do Sul as state president.
Though Vargas lost the 1930 Brazilian general election for the presidency, he rose to power in 1930 under a provisional presidency following an armed revolution, remaining until 1934 where he was elected president under a 1934 constitution. Three years later, Vargas would seize powers under the pretext of a potential communist revolution, beginning an eight-year long dictatorship with Vargas at its center. In 1942, he led Brazil into World War II on the side of the Allies after being sandwiched between Nazi Germany and the United States. Though there was notable resistance, the major revolts – the Constitutionalist Revolution in Vargas's provisional presidency; the Communist uprising of 1935 in his constitutional presidency; and the Brazilian Integralist Action's putsch in his dictatorship – were all successfully suppressed, though the methods Vargas used in quelling his opposition ranged from light peace terms to jailing political opponents.
Though he was ousted in 1945 after fifteen years of being president, he returned in 1951 after being elected by the people. However, a growing political crisis led to Vargas's suicide in 1954, prematurely ending his second presidency. Historians consider Vargas as the most influential Brazilian politician of the 20th century. He is also one of a number of populists who arose during the 1930s in Latin America, including Lázaro Cárdenas and Juan Perón, who promoted nationalism and pursued social reform.
Vargas' political adversaries initiated a crisis which culminated in the murder of an Air Force officer, Major Rubens Vaz, killed during an assassination attempt in the street outside 180 Rua Tonelero, the home of Vargas' main adversary, publishing executive and politician, Carlos Lacerda. Lieutenant Gregório Fortunato, chief of Vargas' personal guard, also called "Black Angel", was implicated in the crime. This aroused anger in the military against Vargas, following which the generals demanded his resignation. In a last-ditch effort Vargas called a special cabinet meeting on the eve of 24 August, but rumours spread that the armed forces officers were implacable.
On 24 August 1954 at the Catete Palace, Vargas, unable to manage the situation, shot himself in the chest with a pistol.
His suicide note was found and read out on radio within two hours of his son discovering the body. The famous last lines read, "Serenely, I take my first step on the road to eternity. I leave life to enter History." Vargas' suicide has been interpreted in various ways. "His death by suicide simultaneously traded on the image of a valiant warrior selflessly fighting for the protection of national interests, alongside the image of a crafty and calculating statesman, whose political machinations reeked of demagoguery and self-interest." The same day, riots broke out in Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre.
The Vargas family refused a state funeral, but his successor, Café Filho, declared official days of mourning. Vargas' body was on public view in a glass-topped coffin. The route of the cortege carrying the body from the Presidential Palace to the airport was lined with tens of thousands of Brazilians. The burial and memorial service were in his hometown of São Borja, Rio Grande do Sul.
The Museu Histórico Nacional (MHN) was given the furnishings of the bedroom where Vargas committed suicide, and a museum gallery recreates the scene and is a site of remembrance. On exhibit in the Palace is his nightshirt with a bullet hole in the chest. The popular outrage caused by his suicide had supposedly been strong enough to thwart the ambitions of his enemies, among the rightists, anti-nationalists, pro-U.S. elements and even the pro-Prestes Brazilian Communist Party, for several years.
The Marajoara or Marajo culture was an ancient pre-Columbian era civilization that flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River in northern Brazil. In a survey, Charles C. Mann suggests the culture appeared to flourish between 800 AD and 1400 AD, based on archeological studies. Researchers have documented that there was human activity at these sites as early as 1000 BC. The culture seems to have persisted into the colonial era.
Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island. These pieces are large, and elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated, complex and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks.
The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people. The Native Americans of the Amazon rain forest may have used their method of developing and working in terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.
Art and symbolism
The most common motif found in Marajoara iconography involves female imagery (Roosevelt 1991: 410-415).
Females as mythical ancestors, creators, cultural heroes
Females portrayed in shamanistic roles and with shamanistic power
These female motifs are typically found on ceramic artifacts, either pottery vessels or statues (Roosevelt 1991).
The prominence of female imagery in Marajoara iconography suggests that women were not of a lower status than men and were actually highly valued (Roosevelt 1991: 411).
However, the female emphasis of iconography doesn’t exclude the possibility of a strong gender dichotomy, as demonstrated by some contemporary Amazonians (Roosevelt 1991: 413).