Hussar of Death Manuel Javier Rodríguez & Condor and Deer 50 Centésimos Chile Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry (By Right or Might) (1971)
Hussar of Death Manuel Javier Rodríguez & Condor and Deer 50 Centésimos Chile Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (By Right or Might) (Revolutionary) (1971)
Obverse: Portrait of Manuel Javier Rodríguez Erdoíza (1785-1818), an officer, lawyer, and politician, who is considered as one of the founders of modern Chile, facing right.
Lettering: REPUBLICA DE CHILE
Translation: Republic of Chile
Reverse: The arms of Chile [Condor and Deer supporters] -- with the date to the left and mintmark to the right of the denomination below.
Lettering: POR LA RAZON O LA FUERZA
BY REASON OR BY FORCE
Period Republic (1818-date)
Type Standard circulation coin
Value 50 Centésimos (0.50)
Currency Escudo (1960-1975)
Weight 4.0 g
Diameter 22 mm
Thickness 1.6 mm
Orientation Coin alignment ↑↓
Demonetized 29 September 1975
Number N# 5398
References KM# 196
Manuel Xavier Rodríguez Erdoíza; February 27, 1785 – May 26, 1818) was a Chilean lawyer and guerrilla leader, considered one of the founders of independent Chile. Rodríguez was of Basque descent.
The "Patria Nueva" (New Fatherland) (1817–1818)
After the victory at Chacabuco, the Chilean commander Bernardo O'Higgins ordered the arrest of Rodríguez who managed to escape capture and was hidden until San Martín was able to intervene on his behalf and conferred on him the rank of lieutenant colonel. After the surprise attack by the Spanish forces at the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, Rodríguez was instrumental in maintaining calm in Santiago amid false rumors of the death of O'Higgins. It was during this event that he uttered his most famous quote "Aún tenemos patria, ciudadanos" (We still have a fatherland, citizens).
After the events at Cancha Rayada, Rodríguez and other Carrera supporters organised a regiment called the Hussars of Death (Húsares de la Muerte). The characteristic symbol of this organisation was a white skull over a black background, symbolising their will to die in battle rather than allowing the enemy to win. However, this regiment was not considered for the battle of Maipú and was later dissolved by Bernardo O'Higgins (he and San Martín both opposed the Carrera brothers) .
Rodríguez was killed on 26 May 1818 in Til-Til by soldiers the "Cazadores de los Andes" battalion commanded by Antonio Navarro, after being imprisoned by order of O'Higgins. His execution was extrajudicial, and it is widely attributed to the head of the government.
Rodriguez's body was mutilated and abandoned in a trench, but a group of local peasants found it and recognized Rodríguez, burying him secretly under the La Merced Chapel's altar in Til-Til with the help of the local priest. This was a sample of the affection the people had for Manuel Rodríguez, as well as the fear and contempt for the government of O'Higgins.
By the end of the 20th century, Rodríguez's body was moved to the General Cemetery of Santiago. It is believed today, however (after some research not yet finished), that the moved remains were not really Rodríguez's, but those of an older unknown soldier wearing the Husares de la Muerte uniform (although at the time of his assassination, Rodríguez was not wearing his legendary uniform), and that Rodríguez's body might still be buried in Til-Til's La Merced Chapel.
In popular culture
In the 2007 historical fiction TV series Héroes, Manuel Rodríguez is played by popular actor Benjamín Vicuña.
The outlawed Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (FPMR), was a left-wing guerrilla group has fought against the Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship during the 80's.
In the historical movie El Húsar de la Muerte, Manuel Rodríguez is played by Pedro Sienna.
Victor Jara dedicated the Song "El Aparecido (Hijo de la Rebeldia)" / "The Appeared (Son of rebellion)" to Manuel Rodriguez
"Húsar", a 2011 romanticized and dramatized version of the Chilean War of Independence through the eyes of Rodríguez, is a very popular soap opera in Chile.
The coat of arms of Chile dates from 1834 and was designed by the English artist Charles Wood Taylor (1792–1856). It is made up by a figurative background divided in two equal parts: the top one is blue and the bottom, red. A five pointed white star is in the centre of the shield. This background is supported in one side by a Condor, the most significant bird of prey from the Andes, and in the other, by a huemul [South Andean Deer], a mammal endemic to Chile. Both animals wear golden naval crowns symbolising the heroic deeds of the Chilean Navy in the Pacific Ocean.
The coat of arms is crowned by a three-feathered crest, each feather bearing one colour: blue, white and red. This crest was a symbol of distinction that former Presidents of the Republic used to wear on their hats.
Underneath the coat of arms and on the elaborated pedestal, there is a white band with the motto: Por la Razón o la Fuerza ("By reason or force").
This emblem is the last of a series of variations due to diverse circumstances and understandings.