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Komuz Lute and Kyl Kyyak Viols & Composer Abdylas Maldybaev 1 Som Kyrgyzstan Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Philharmonic Hall) 1999

Komuz Lute and Kyl Kyyak Viols & Composer Abdylas Maldybaev 1 Som Kyrgyzstan Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Philharmonic Hall) 1999

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Komuz Lute and Kyl Kyyak Viols & Composer Abdylas Maldybaev 1 Som Kyrgyzstan Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Philharmonic Hall)

Obverse: Abdylas Maldybaevich Maldybaev (1906-1978), Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer
Script: Cyrillic
Translation: Bank of Kyrgyzstan, One Som

Reverse: Kyrgyz national musical instruments; a Komuz 3-Stringed Lute and two sizes of the Kyl Kyyak 2-Stringed Viol (alto and tenor), against the building of the Kyrgyz State Philharmonic Hall in Bishkek
Script: Cyrillic
1 1999
Translation: Bank of Kyrgyzstan, One Som

Watermark: Abdylas Maldybaevich Maldybaev

Issuer Kyrgyzstan
Issuing bank Kyrgyz Bank
Period Republic (1991-date)
Type Standard banknote
Year 1999
Value 1 Som (1 KGS)
Currency Som (1993-date)
Composition Paper
Size 120 × 60 mm
Shape Rectangular
Demonetized Yes
Number N# 204850
References P# 15

Abdylas Maldybaevich Maldybaev (Kyrgyz: Абдылас Малдыбаев, Abdılas Maldıbayev/Aвdьlas Maldьвajev; July 7, 1906 – June 1, 1978) was a Kyrgyz composer, actor, and operatic tenor singer. Maldybaev was one of the composers of the state anthem of the Kirghiz SSR and is still renowned for his operatic composition. He helped popularize Kyrgyz music by skillfully using Western European techniques. The Kyrgyz one som banknote pictures him.

Maldybayev provided folk melodies and composed music which was organized and prepared by Russian composers Vladimir Vlasov and Vladimir Fere into six Soviet state operas and other works. Their first full opera was Ai-churek. The collective is usually hyphenated as Vlasov-Fere-Maldybayev, which also composed the Kirghiz national anthem.


The komuz or qomuz (Kyrgyz: комуз Kyrgyz pronunciation: [qoˈmuz], Azerbaijani: Qopuz, Turkish: Kopuz) is an ancient fretless string instrument used in Central Asian music, related to certain other Turkic string instruments, the Mongolian tovshuur, and the lute.

It is the best-known national instrument and one of the better-known Kyrgyz national symbols. The komuz is generally made from a single piece of wood (usually apricot or juniper) and has three strings traditionally made out of gut, and often from fishing line in modern times. In the most common tunings the middle string is the highest in pitch. Virtuosos frequently play the komuz in a variety of different positions; over the shoulder, between the knees and upside down. An illustration of a komuz is featured on the reverse of the one-som note.

The word komuz is cognate to the names of other instruments in the Music of Central Asia, including the Kazakh kobyz (Uzbek qo'biz) (bowed instruments), and the Tuvan and Sakha or Yakut xomus (a jaw harp).

The oldest known komuz-like instrument dates from the 4th century although the related Azerbaijani gopuz is believed to date back to 6000 BC following an archaeological discovery of clay plates depicting gopuz players. In the 1960s American archeologists working in the Shushdagh mountains near the ancient city of Jygamish in Iranian Azerbaijan, uncovered a number of rare clay plates which dated back to around 6000 B.C. which depicted musicians at a council, holding a komuz-like instrument to their chests[citation needed]. The golcha gopuz was mentioned in the epic Book of Dede Korkut.

The names of parts of the komuz are often allusions to body parts, particularly of horses. For example, the neck is called [mojun] "neck", the tuning pegs are called [qulɑq], or "ear"s. The Kyrgyz word кыл/qyl means "string of an instrument" or "horse's hair".

The ancient komuz generally had two or three strings. The three-stringed golcha gopuz was more popular in ancient Azerbaijan and Anatolia: the two-stringed gil gopuz or "iklyg" was used on the Altai plains, in parts of Turkmenistan and in Chinese territory inhabited by the Uyghur people.

The golcha gopuz is made from a leather covering which covered around two-thirds of the surface, and the other third is covered with thin wood along with the sound board. The total length of the instrument is 810 mm, with the body 410 mm, the width 240 mm and the height or breadth only 20 mm. The Kyrgyz: ооз комуз ([oːz qoˈmuz], literally "mouth komuz") or, alternatively, Kyrgyz: темир комуз ([temir qoˈmuz], literally "metal komuz" or "iron komuz"), is a jaw harp and as an instrument is unrelated to the komuz.

During the Soviet era the instrument fell from favour. It was derided as rudimentary and attempts were made to make it more like the Russian balalaika, notably by adding frets. After independence the komuz was again taught in music colleges, though some of the Soviet changes have remained.

In the twentieth century the late Iranian dutar player Haj Ghorban Soleimani invented a new form of the komuz which has received some popularity.

Legendary origin
In legends, Dede Korkut is seen as the inventor of the kopuz. In The Book of Dede Korkut, his special bond with the kopuz is not limited to his performances as a bard. Of particular importance, there is a passage in the story about the brothers Egrek and Segrek. When Segrek wants to attack Egrek, because he thinks he is dealing with an infidel, he says:

Hey infidel, out of respect for Dede Korkut's lute, I didn't strike. If you didn't have the lute in your hand I'd have you cut in two in my brother's name.

— Segrek to Egrek
Thus a random lute is directly connected to Dede Korkut here, which is presumably a reference to the fact that he was the inventor there.


The kyl kyyak (Kyrgyz: кыл кыяк [qɯl qɯˈjɑq]) (sometimes spelt kyl kiak and sometimes without the 'kyl') is a stringed musical instrument used in Kyrgyz music. The instrument is carved from a single piece of wood (typically apricot) and typically measures 60–70 cm. It has 2 strings, one to provide melody and the other resonance. The kyl kyyak is played vertically with a bow and can be played on horseback. The strings and bow are normally made from horse hair and many instruments feature a carved horse's head. This all reflects the importance of the horse in Kyrgyz rural culture.

.....Traditionally kobyzes [regional name for kyl kyyak] were sacred instruments, owned by shamans and bakses (traditional spiritual medics). According to legends, the kobyz and its music could banish evil spirits, sicknesses and death.


The Toktogul Satylganov Kyrgyz National Philharmonic is a landmark building in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and home to musical performances. It is named after Kyrgyz aqyn Toktogul Satylganov.

Building design
The Philharmonic Society, founded on 7 October 1936 on the basis of the orchestra of folk instruments, did not have its own concert hall for many years, with the concerts being staged in the halls of Komvuz as well as the hall of the Ministry of Agriculture. The building has a large hall for 1,108 seats and a small organ hall for 314 seats. The current building was designed by A. Pechonkin and completed in 1980. The building faces city hall. A statue of Manas and fountains are on the grounds. The building's architecture is brutalist from the Soviet era. There was a fire in the building in August 2018.

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