Mongol Horses & Revolutionary Damdin Sükhbaatar 10 Tögrög Mongolia Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry Craft (Soyombo) (Paiza) Genghis Khan
Mongol Horses & Revolutionary Damdin Sükhbaatar 10 Tögrög Mongolia Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Soyombo) (Paiza) (Genghis Khan)
Reverse: A pair of Mongol Horses on the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland (Mongolian-Manchurian steppe), and the Paiza, a tablet that provided a connotation of authority for Mongol officials and envoys, which allowed Mongolian nobles and officials to sue for goods and services from the civilian population.
Lettering: ᠑᠐ МОНГОЛ УЛС
Translation: Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia, Ten Tögrög
Obverse: Portrait of Damdin Sükhbaatar (1893 – 1923), who was a Mongol leader considered the “Father of the Mongolian Revolution,” the Paiza, a tablet that provided a connotation of authority for Mongol officials and envoys, which allowed Mongolian nobles and officials to sue for goods and services from the civilian population, the Soyombo symbol (self-created), which is used as the national symbol of Mongolia, found on the Mongolian flag and emblem, and a sketch of a candlestick with three candles followed by the numerical denomination.
Scripts: Mongolian (folded), Mongolian / Manchu
Lettering: 10 ᠑᠐
Translation: Mongolia, Bank of Mongolia, Ten Tögrög
Watermark: Genghis Khan
Period Republic (1992-date)
Type Standard banknote
Value 10 Tögrög
10 MNT = USD 0.0035
Currency Tögrög (1925-date)
Size 125 × 61 mm
Number N# 203122
References P# 62
Wikipedia: The Mongol Horse (Mongolian Адуу, aduu: "horse" or mori; or as a herd, ado) is the native horse breed of Mongolia. The breed is purported to be largely unchanged since the time of Genghis Khan. Nomads living in the traditional Mongol fashion still hold more than 3 million animals, which outnumber the country's human population. In Mongolia, the horses live outdoors all year, dealing with temperatures from 30 °C (86 °F) in summer down to −40 °C (−40 °F) in winter, and they graze and search for food on their own. The mare's milk is processed into the national beverage airag. Some animals are slaughtered for meat. Other than that, they serve as riding and transport animals; they are used both for the daily work of the nomads and in horse racing.
Mongol horses were a key factor supporting the 13th-century conquests of the Mongol Empire.
The Mongols have many stories and songs about horses. Legendary horses include magical flying steeds, beloved horses that visit in dreams, and a rich body of folklore about equine protagonists. The horse has long played a role as a sacred animal, and Mongols have a variety of spiritual beliefs regarding them. The mane is believed to contain a horse's spirit and strength; for this reason, the mane of stallions is always left uncut. Mare's milk has been used in ceremonies of purification, prayer, and blessing since antiquity. In modern times, it continues to be used in a variety of ceremonies associated with racing. Historically, horses were sacrificed on special occasions; 40 horses were sacrificed at the funeral of Genghis Khan. When a horse is killed, a variety of rituals may be followed to honor the remains. Horses are believed to have spirits that can help or hurt their owner after death. When a deceased horse's spirit is content, the owner's herd will flourish; if not, then the herd will fail.
Wikipedia: Damdin Sükhbaatar (Mongolian: Дамдины Сүхбаатар, Damdinii Sykebaatar, ᠳᠠᠮᠳᠢᠨ ᠤ
ᠰᠦᠬᠡᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠤᠷ; February 2, 1893 – February 20, 1923) was a founding member of the Mongolian People's Party and leader of the Mongolian partisan army that took Khüree during the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921. For his part in the Outer Mongolian revolution of 1921, he was enshrined as the "Father of Mongolia's Revolution".
The Mongolian Revolution of 1921 (Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921, or People's Revolution of 1921) was a military and political event by which Mongolian revolutionaries, with the assistance of the Soviet Red Army, expelled Russian White Guards from the country, and founded the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924. Although nominally independent, the Mongolian People's Republic was a satellite state of the Soviet Union until a third Mongolian revolution in January 1990. The revolution also ended the Chinese Beiyang government's occupation of Mongolia, which had begun in 1919. The official Mongolian name of the revolution is "People's Revolution of 1921" or simply "People's Revolution" (Mongolian: Ардын хувьсгал).
A paiza or paizi or gerege (Middle Mongolian: Гэрэгэ, Mongolian: Пайз, Persian: پایزه pāiza, Chinese: 牌子 páizi) was a tablet carried by Mongol officials and envoys to signify certain privileges and authority. They enabled Mongol nobles and officials to demand goods and services from civilian populations.
Although only someone with a paiza was required to be supplied with mounts and served specified rations, those carrying military rarities used the yam even without a paiza. The officials and nobles of the Mongol Empire issued paizas unofficially and abused civilians. Therefore, Ögedei Khan (r. 1229–1241) prohibited the nobility from issuing paizas and jarliqs.
To attract foreign or overseas merchants and talents, the Great Khans gave them paiza exempting them from taxes and allowing them to use relay stations. Most of these merchants were business partners of the Mongols, known as ortoq. However, Möngke Khan (r. 1251–1259) limited notorious abuses and sent imperial investigators to supervise the business of the merchants who were sponsored by the Mongols. He prohibited them from using the imperial relay stations or yam (zam) and paizas.
Marco Polo, who visited the Yuan Dynasty during the reign of Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294), left a good description of the paiza.
The Ilkhan Ghazan (r. 1295–1304) reformed the issuance of jarliqs, creating set forms and graded seals, ordering that all jarliqs be kept on file at court and canceling jarliqs older than 30 years and old paizas. He fashioned new paizas into two ranks, ordered that they bear the names of the bearers on them to prevent them from being transferred and required them to be relinquished at the end of the official's term.
Although paizas were popularized by the Mongols, they were not (contrary to common claim) a Mongol innovation. Similar such passports were already in use in northern China under the Liao dynasty, and their use was continued under subsequent kingdoms such as the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut kingdom of Xi-Xia. The Jin paiza had seven different ranks.
The Soyombo symbol (Mongolian: Соёмбо, ᠰᠣᠶᠤᠮᠪᠤ from Sanskrit: svayambhu) is a special character in the Soyombo alphabet invented by Zanabazar in 1686. The name "Soyombo" is derived from Sanskrit svayambhu "self-created". It serves as a national symbol of Mongolia, to be found on the Flag of Mongolia, the Emblem of Mongolia, and on many other official documents.
In the Soyombo alphabet, the two variations of the Soyombo symbol are used to mark the start and end of a text. It is thought to be possible that the symbol itself may predate the script.
Symbolism: The Soyombo has ten elements in the columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric symbols and patterns. They are fire, sun, moon, two triangles, two horizontal rectangles, the Taijitu (yin and yang) and two vertical rectangles. The elements in the symbol are given the following significance (from top):
Fire is a general symbol of eternal growth, wealth, and success. The three tongues of the flame represent the past, present, and future.
Sun (●) and moon symbolizes the existence of the Mongolian nation for eternity as the eternal blue sky. Mongolian symbol of the sun, moon and fire derived from the Xiongnu.
The two triangles (▼) allude to the point of an arrow or spear. They point downward to announce the defeat of interior and exterior enemies.
The two horizontal rectangles (▬) give stability to the round shape. The rectangular shape represents the honesty and justice of the people of Mongolia, whether they stand at the top or at the bottom of society.
The Taijitu symbol (☯) illustrates the mutual complement of man and woman. It is interpreted as two fishes, symbolizing vigilance, because fish never close their eyes.
The two vertical rectangles (▮) can be interpreted as the walls of a fort. They represent unity and strength, relating to a Mongolian proverb: "The friendship of two is stronger than stone walls."
The Soyombo symbol has appeared on the national Flag of Mongolia since its independence in 1911 (except between 1940-1945). It served as the Emblem of Mongolia from 1911 to 1940, and was included in the design again in 1992. Mongolian Armed Forces vehicles bear the symbol as a marking.
The symbol is seen all over the country, especially on a hillside outside of Ulaanbaatar.
The flag and coat of arms of Buryatia as well as the flag of Agin-Buryat Okrug in Russia, and that of the Inner Mongolian People's Party display the top elements (Flame, Sun, and Moon).
Genghis Khan (c. 1158 – August 18, 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death. He came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia, and, after being proclaimed the universal ruler of the Mongols, or Genghis Khan, he launched the Mongol invasions, which ultimately conquered most of Eurasia, reaching as far west as Poland and as far south as Egypt. His major campaigns include those against the Qara Khitai, Khwarezmia, and the Western Xia and Jin dynasties, and raids into medieval Georgia, the Kievan Rus', and Volga Bulgaria.
Genghis Khan and his empire have a fearsome reputation in local histories. Many medieval chroniclers and modern historians describe Genghis Khan's conquests as wholesale destruction on an unprecedented scale, causing great demographic changes and a drastic decline of population as a result of mass exterminations and famine. A conservative estimate amounts to about four million civilians (whereas other figures range from forty to sixty million) who lost their lives as a consequence of Genghis Khan's military campaigns. In contrast, Buddhist Uyghurs of the kingdom of Qocho, who willingly left the Qara Khitai empire to become Mongol vassals, viewed him as a liberator. Genghis Khan was also portrayed positively by early Renaissance sources out of respect for the great spread of culture, technology and ideas under the Mongol Empire. By the end of the Great Khan's life, the Mongol Empire occupied a substantial portion of Central Asia and China. Due to his exceptional military successes, Genghis Khan is often considered to be one of the greatest conquerors of all time.
Beyond his military accomplishments, Genghis Khan also advanced the Mongol Empire in other ways. He decreed the adoption of the Uyghur script as the Mongol Empire's writing system. He also practised meritocracy and encouraged religious tolerance in the Mongol Empire, unifying the nomadic tribes of Northeast Asia. Present-day Mongolians regard him as the founding father of Mongolia. He is also credited with bringing the Silk Road under one cohesive political environment. This brought relatively easy communication and trade between Northeast Asia, Muslim Southwest Asia, and Christian Europe, expanding the cultural horizons of all three areas.
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