Moravian Folk-Art Partridge on Gombik Button & Rampant Lion 2 Koruny Czech Republic Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry (Great Moravia) Pendant
Moravian Folk-Art Partridge on Gombik Button & Rampant Lion 2 Koruny Czech Republic Authentic Coin Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (Great Moravia) (Spherical Hollow Pendant) (Hendecagonal) (11 Sided Coin)
Reverse: Great Moravian Gombik spherical button-fastener.
Obverse: Crowned Czech lion, mintmark, year of production.
Lettering: ČESKÁ REPUBLIKA
Translation: Czech Republic
Issuer Czech Republic
Period Republic (1993-date)
Type Standard circulation coin
Value 2 Koruny
2 CZK = 0.09 USD
Currency Koruna (1993-date)
Composition Nickel plated steel
Weight 3.7 g
Diameter 21.5 mm
Thickness 1.85 mm
Shape Hendecagonal (11-sided)
Orientation Medal alignment ↑↑
Number N# 2155
References KM# 9, Schön# 176
"Very typical of Great Moravian metalworking is the hollow globular metal buttons or gombik that were used, often in pairs, to hold a cloak or garment around the neck."
"Among the more notable finds are spherical hollow buttons known as gombiky (used as prestigious clothing fasteners or pendants)."
Original Paper, Published: 25 June 2020
Technological characterisation of early Medieval gilded copper hollow pendants (gombiky), from Mikulčice (Moravia) and Prague Castle (Bohemia)
Gilded copper hollow spherical pendants known as gombiky (s. gombik) were examined to identify the technology of gilding and the material chosen as the substrate. The examined ornaments dating from the ninth and tenth centuries AD were recovered from elite graves of two major political, ecclesiastical and economic centres of the Early Medieval period located in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic: Mikulčice and Prague Castle, major sites of Moravia and Bohemia, respectively. Taking into account the state of degradation and possible bias due to earlier restorations, surface and bulk characterisation of the gilded material has been performed combining optical observation, X-ray radiography, metallography, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/EDS analysis) and focused ion beam (FIB) milling mounted on FEG-SEM. The manufacturing procedure was reproduced by experimental archaeology. A detailed investigation of the gilded artefacts revealed several types of gombik construction involving different mounted elements, including the main body parts and the suspension system elements joined by hard soldering. The different constitutive parts are made with almost pure copper or low-purity copper. The systematic use of fire gilding (mercury amalgam gilding) was documented. Differences in the materials that were used and technical quality show the coexistence of finely produced objects by highly skilled and knowledgeable jewellers alongside more coarsely manufactured imitations. These variations are discussed in terms of different workshops in a possible relationship with their origin of manufacture.
Great Moravia (Latin: Regnum Marahensium; Greek: Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Meghálī Moravía; Czech: Velká Morava [ˈvɛlkaː ˈmorava]; Slovak: Veľká Morava [ˈʋeʎkaː ˈmɔraʋa]; Polish: Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, possibly including territories which are part of today the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Hungary and Serbia. The only formation preceding it in these territories was Samo's tribal union known from between 631 and 658 AD.
Its core territory is the region now called Moravia in the eastern part of the Czech Republic alongside the Morava River, which gave its name to the kingdom. The kingdom saw the rise of the first ever Slavic literary culture in the Old Church Slavonic language as well as the expansion of Christianity after the arrival of St. Cyril and St. Methodius in 863 and the creation of the Glagolitic alphabet, the first alphabet dedicated to a Slavic language. Glagolitic was subsequently replaced by a simpler Cyrillic.
Although the borders of his empire cannot be exactly determined, Moravia reached its largest territorial extent under prince Svatopluk I (Slovak: Svätopluk), who ruled from 870 to 894. Separatism and internal conflicts emerging after Svatopluk's death contributed to the fall of Great Moravia, which was overrun by the Hungarians, who then included the territory of present-day Slovakia in their domains. The exact date of Moravia's collapse is unknown, but it occurred between 902 and 907.
Moravia experienced significant cultural development under King Rastislav, with the arrival in 863 of the mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius. After his request for missionaries had been refused in Rome, Rastislav asked the Byzantine emperor to send a "teacher" (učiteľ) to introduce literacy and a legal system (pravьda) to Great Moravia. The request was granted. The missionary brothers Cyril and Methodius introduced a system of writing (the Glagolitic alphabet) and Slavonic liturgy, the latter eventually formally approved by Pope Adrian II. The Glagolitic script was probably invented by Cyril himself and the language he used for his translations of holy scripts and his original literary creation was based on the Slavic dialect he and his brother Methodius knew from their native Thessaloniki. Old Church Slavonic, therefore, differed somewhat from the local Slavic dialect of Great Moravia which was the ancestral idiom to the later dialects spoken in Moravia and western Slovakia.
Later, the disciples of Cyril and Methodius were expelled from Great Moravia by King Svatopluk I, who re-orientated the Empire to Western Christianity. Nevertheless, the expulsion had a significant impact on countries where the disciples settled and from there continued their evangelizing missions - especially Southeastern Europe, firstly Bulgaria from 886, and later in Eastern Europe. Arriving in the First Bulgarian Empire, the disciples continued the Cyrilo-Methodian mission. The language, termed Old Church Slavonic, became the official written language in Bulgaria probably from 893, where it is now sometimes referred to as Old Bulgarian. The Glagolitic script was substituted by Cyrillic which used some of its letters. Early Cyrillic alphabet was developed during the 9th century AD at the Preslav Literary School in Bulgaria, and became official for the country from circa 893. The Cyrillic script and translations of the liturgy were disseminated to other Slavic countries, particularly in the Balkans and Kievan Rus', charting a new path in these Slavic nations' cultural development and establishing the Cyrillic alphabets as they are now known in Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mongolia, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, and Ukraine.
Cyril and Methodius were declared co-patrons of Europe by Pope John Paul II in 1980.
On the Bohemian Lion (or Czech Lion):
The particular difference to the other lions in heraldry is its double-tailed shape, which is otherwise not common. In some coats of arms it is turned the other way around, that is, it is heraldically left facing. He is also known as the masked lion from the coat of arms of Ústí nad Labem .
The first state symbol of rule for Bohemia was not the lion, but the flame eagle of the Přemyslids , later called the Wenceslas eagle . It can already be found on coins from the time of Prince Bedřich in the 12th century. The Dalimil Chronicle connects the heraldic lion with the award of the royal title to Vladislav in 1156. However, the lion is only reliably documented on the seal of the Moravian margrave Vladislav Heinrich in 1213.
Seal of Ottokar II Přemysl
The twostail is documented from 1248. With the rise of Premysl Otakar II. King, the emblem established as a symbol of the kingdom. The lion, which began in the coats of arms of various rulers, spread in many coats of arms with the expansion of the Bohemian sphere of influence. Examples are Görlitz , Löbau , Plech and Spremberg . Löbau can already prove the lion on a seal from 1254. Also in the coat of arms hall of the Wenzelschloss in Lauf an der Pegnitz there is the Bohemian coat of arms, which demonstrates the former size of the domain.
The Bohemian lion outlived the Přemyslid dynasty and remained the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Bohemia until the end of 1918. It was included in the coat of arms of Czechoslovakia. It occupies an appropriate place in the Czech national coat of arms , as it is one of the national symbols , like the Moravian eagle .
The grey partridge (Perdix perdix), also known as the English partridge, Hungarian partridge, or hun, is a gamebird in the pheasant family Phasianidae of the order Galliformes, gallinaceous birds. The scientific name is the Latin for "partridge", and is itself derived from Ancient Greek perdix.