Sambar Deer; Flying Garuda; Krishna Mandir Temple; Mt Everest; Rhododendron 20 Rupees Nepal Authentic Banknote Money for Collage
Sambar Deer; Flying Garuda; Krishna Mandir Temple; Mount Everest; Rhododendron 20 Rupees Nepal Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Sagarmāthā)
Reverse: Sambar Deer. Flying Garuda (in circle)
Obverse: Mt. Everest and Krishna Mandir Temple.
Watermark: Rhododendron Flower
Period Federal Republic (2008-date)
Type Standard banknote
Value 20 Rupees
20 NPR = USD 0.17
Currency Rupee (1932-date)
Size 140 × 70 mm
Number N# 203974
References P# 62
Common Name: Sambar Deer
Scientific Name: Cervus unicolor
Nepali Name: Jarayo ( जरायो )
Size: 150 cm (height)
Location: Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Samber Deers are found in grasslands, dense cover of deciduous shrubs and forests ranging from 75m elevation to 3000m. They are the largest deer in Nepal with the height of upto 150 cm till the sholder and weight around 225 – 320 kg. With a shaggy dark brown coat, the male has a very prominent dense mane, unlike the female which is smaller but still dense.
The adult males have a three-tined (parallel or branching spikes forming parts of a tool or natural object) antler measuring up to 110 cm but the females don’t have antlers. Sambars are nocturnal and do not herd together. During the breeding season, the stag will guard the hinds in their territory. Even though being a large deer, Sambers are very silent when they move through the forest.
They feed on a variety of shrubs, fruits, trees, water plants in shallow waters, grasses.
The sambar (Rusa unicolor) is a large deer native to the Indian subcontinent, South China, and Southeast Asia that is listed as a vulnerable species on the IUCN Red List since 2008. Populations have declined substantially due to severe hunting, local insurgency, and industrial exploitation of habitat.
They are the favourite prey of tigers and Asiatic lions. In India, the sambar can comprise up to nearly 60% of the prey selected by the Bengal tiger. Anecdotally, the tiger is said to even mimic the call of the sambar to deceive it while hunting. They also can be taken by crocodiles, mostly the sympatric mugger crocodiles and saltwater crocodiles. Leopards and dholes largely prey on only young or sickly deer, though they can attack healthy adults as well.
Garuda (Sanskrit: गरुड Garuḍa; Pāli: गरुळ Garuḷa), also Galon or Nan Belu in Burmese and Karura in Japanese, is a legendary bird or bird-like creature in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain faith. He is variously the vehicle mount (vahana) of the Hindu god Vishnu, a dharma-protector and Astasena or the Eight Legions in Buddhism, and the Yaksha of the Jain Tirthankara Shantinatha. The Brahminy kite is considered as the contemporary representation of Garuda. He is younger brother of Aruna, the charioteer of Sun.
Garuda is described as the king of birds and a kite-like figure. He is shown either in zoomorphic form (giant bird with partially open wings) or an anthropomorphic form (man with wings and some bird features). Garuda is generally a protector with the power to swiftly go anywhere, ever watchful and an enemy of the serpent. He is also known as Tarkshya and Vynateya.
Garuda is a part of state insignia in India, Indonesia and Thailand. The Indonesian official coat of arms is centered on the Garuda. The national emblem of Indonesia is called Garuda Pancasila. The Indian Air Force also uses the Garuda in their Guards Brigade coat of arms and named their special operations unit after it as Garud Commando Force. It is often associated with the Greater adjutant stork (Leptoptilos dubius).
Krishna Mandir Temple (built 1631-37) (Nepali: कृष्ण मन्दिर)
The Krishna temple on the west side of Patan's Darbar square was completed in 1637. Legend says that it was inspired by a dream. One night, King Siddhi Narasingh Malla (r. 1620-61) dreamt that the gods Krishna and Radha were standing in front of the palace. The King ordered a temple built on the same location. During a war with a neighboring kingdom a decade later, the King emerged victorious after calling on Krishna to vanquish his enemies. In gratitude, the King built a replica of the temple inside the Sundari Chauk courtyard.
The Krishna temple is built in the sikhara style common to north India and Bengal, a design technique found in monuments as far afield as Bagan, Myanmar. Beneath its 21 golden pinnacles are three floors. The first floor enshrines Krishna, the second Shiva (in the form of a linga), and the third Lokeshwor. Except for the ground floor, a series of chhatri pavilions frame the inner ambulatories; eight each are located at the corners and cardinal directions of the second and third levels, while the fourth level includes four ornamental chattri built directly into each face of the sikhara. On the ground floor, the inner walls of the wraparound gallery are divided into five bays on each side, with a door located at the center of each facade. The remaining bays feature scenes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata narrated in Newari script.
Krishna is believed to be an earthly incarnation of Vishnu; hence, images of Vishnu and his mount, Garuda, are found throughout the temple. Four full-size statues of Vishnu upon Garuda surround the base of the sikhara, while bas-reliefs of the same theme are located on the ground floor cornices. Depictions of the 10 avatars of Vishnu are also set on the outside face of the ground-level gallery. A freestanding statue of gided Garuda, mounted upon a pole, is set in front of the temple. It was erected by Siddhi Narasingh Malla about ten years after construction of the temple.
The Krishna Mandir is managed by local Brahmins and is still used, though entrance is forbidden to non-Hindus (as was the case with the nearby Bhimsen temple, currently awaiting restoration as it was completely destroyed in the 2015 earthquake).
The temple was hard-hit by the 2015 earthquake, sustaining structural damage, particularly to its upper floors. It was painstakingly restored by the Kathmandu Valley Preservation Trust (KVPT) at the cost of 5.7 million Nepali rupees (~$55,000 USD) and reopened to pilgrims and tourists in 2018.
Mount Everest (Chinese: 珠穆朗玛 Zhūmùlǎngmǎ; Nepali: सगरमाथा, romanized: Sagarmāthā; Tibetan: Chomolungma ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ) is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The China–Nepal border runs across its summit point. Its elevation (snow height) of 8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) was most recently established in 2020 by the Nepali and Chinese authorities.
The Nepali name for Everest is Sagarmāthā (सगरमाथा) which means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky" derived from सगर (sagar) meaning "sky" and माथा (māthā) meaning "head" in the Nepali Language.
The Tibetan name for Everest is Qomolangma (ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ, lit. "Holy Mother"). The name was first recorded with a Chinese transcription on the 1721 Kangxi Atlas during the reign of Emperor Kangxi of Qing China, and then appeared as Tchoumour Lancma on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville based on the former map. It is also popularly romanised as Chomolungma and (in Wylie) as Jo-mo-glang-ma. The official Chinese transcription is 珠穆朗玛峰 (t 珠穆朗瑪峰), whose pinyin form is Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng. While other Chinese names exist, include Shèngmǔ Fēng (t 聖母峰, s 圣母峰, lit. "Holy Mother Peak"), these names largely phased out from May 1952 as the Ministry of Internal Affairs of China issued a decree to adopt 珠穆朗玛峰 as the sole name. Documented local names include "Deodungha" ("Holy Mountain"), but it is unclear whether it is commonly used.
In the late 19th century, many European cartographers incorrectly believed that a native name for the mountain was Gaurishankar, a mountain between Kathmandu and Everest.
In 1849, the British survey wanted to preserve local names if possible (e.g., Kangchenjunga and Dhaulagiri), and Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India argued that he could not find any commonly used local name, as his search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet's exclusion of foreigners. Waugh argued that because there were many local names, it would be difficult to favour one name over all others; he decided that Peak XV should be named after British surveyor Sir George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India. Everest himself opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that "Everest" could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name for the highest mountain in the world. The modern pronunciation of Everest (/ˈɛvərɪst/) is different from Sir George's pronunciation of his surname (/ˈiːvrɪst/ EEV-rist).
In the early 1960s, the Nepali government coined the Nepali name Sagarmāthā (IAST transcription) or Sagar-Matha (सागर-मथ्था, [sʌɡʌrmatʰa], lit. "goddess of the sky".
Mount Everest attracts many climbers, some of them highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the "standard route") and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as significant hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of 2019, over 300 people have died on Everest, many of whose bodies remain on the mountain.
The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. As Nepal did not allow foreigners to enter the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m (22,970 ft) on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m (27,300 ft), marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m (26,247 ft). Seven porters were killed in an avalanche on the descent from the North Col. The 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether or not they were the first to reach the top. They had been spotted high on the mountain that day but disappeared in the clouds, never to be seen again, until Mallory's body was found in 1999 at 8,155 m (26,755 ft) on the north face. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first official ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m (28,199 ft) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.
Rhododendron /ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a very large genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout lowland and montane forests in the Pacific Northwest, California, the Northeastern United States, and especially in the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America. It is the national flower of Nepal, the state flower of Washington and West Virginia in the United States, the provincial flower of Jiangxi in China and the state tree of Sikkim and Uttarakhand in India. Most species have brightly colored flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer.
Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower.