Spiritual Guardian Nat Thar and Brahminy Duck & General Aung San 35 Kyats Myanmar Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Burma) (Moon Rabbit)
Spiritual Guardian Nat Thar and Brahminy Duck & Revolutionary General Aung San 35 Kyats Myanmar Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Collage (Hinthar) (Ruddy Shelduck) (Birds of Lama) (Chakwa) (Surkhab) (Marital Fidelity) (Burma) (Moon Rabbit)
Reverse: Wood carving detail of "Nat Thar", a male Spiritual Guardian (of which there are numerous. Nats vary per region of Burma/Myanmar, and are appeased through custom and ritual, as to avoid harm.) This carving is on a door in the Shwe In Bin Kyaung Monastery in Mandalay.
Also depicted ia a Hinthar (aka Brahminy Duck). In Myanmar, in Burmese monasteries, the Brahminy duck is known as Hinthar.
Also, a Moon Rabbit.
Lettering: THIRTY FIVE KYATS
UNION OF BURMA BURMA
Obverse: Bogyoke (Major General) Aung San (1915-1947) and also a depiction of a Hinthar (Brahminy Duck).
Translation: Union of Burma Bank, Thirty Five Kyats
General Aun Sang
Note from Wikipedia: On 10 November 1985, 75-kyats notes were introduced, the odd denomination possibly chosen because of dictator general Ne Win's predilection for numerology; the 75-kyats note was supposedly introduced to commemorate his 75th birthday. It was followed by the introduction of 15- and 35- kyats notes on 1 August 1986.
Period Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (1974-1988)
Type Standard banknote
Value 35 Kyats (35 BUK)
Currency Union of Burma - Third kyat (1952-1989)
Size 154 × 74 mm
Number N# 207548
References P# 63
Wikipedia: The nats (နတ်; MLCTS: nat; IPA: [naʔ]) are god-like spirits venerated in Myanmar and neighbouring countries in conjunction with Buddhism. They are divided between the 37 Great Nats and all the rest (i.e., spirits of trees, water, etc.). Most of the 37 Great Nats were human beings who met violent deaths (စိမ်းသေ, lit. 'green death'), so they may also be called nat sein (နတ်စိမ်း; lit. 'green spirit'). The word sein, while meaning 'green', is being used to mean 'raw' in this context.
There are two types of nats in Burmese Buddhist belief: lower nats or auk nats (အောက်နတ်), who may be named or unnamed, and ahtet nats (အထက်နတ်) or upper nats, dewas who inhabit the heavens.
Much like sainthood, nats can be designated for a variety of reasons, including those only known in certain regions in Burma. Nat worship is less common in urban areas than in rural areas and is practised among ethnic minorities of Myanmar as well as in mainstream Bamar society. However, it is among the Theravada Buddhist Bamar that the most highly developed form of ceremony and ritual is seen.
Every Burmese village has a nat sin (နတ်စင်) which essentially serves as a shrine to the village guardian nat called the ywa saung nat (ရွာစောင့်နတ်). An offertory coconut (နတ်အုန်းသီး) is often hung on the main southeast post (ဥရူတိုင်) in the house, wearing a gaung baung (headdress) and surrounded by perfume, as an offering to the Min Mahagiri (Lord of the Great Mountain), also known as the ein dwin nat (အိမ်တွင်းနတ်; indoor spirit) or ein saung nat (အိမ်စောင့်နတ်; house guardian spirit). One may inherit a certain member or in some instances two of the 37 Great Nats as mi hsaing hpa hsaing (မိဆိုင်ဖဆိုင်; lit. 'mother's side, father's side') from one or both parents' side to worship depending on where their families originally come from. One also has a personal guardian deity called ko saung nat (ကိုယ်စောင့်နတ်).
Shwe-in-bin Kyaung Monastery (1894) (Burmese: ရွှေအင်ပင်ကျောင်းကို)
This monastery is located in southwest Mandalay on the banks of the Thinga Yazar Channel, a small waterway that runs adjacent to the Irrawaddy river. It was built in 1895, a scant nine years after the British seized control of Mandalay (and Burma as a whole) from the Konbaung dynasty and transferred the capital to Yangon, far to the south. In spite of its late date, on the cusp of modernity, the monastery was built in traditional style and is renowned both the quality of its wood carvings and its harmonious layout.
Construction of the monastery was sponsored by a wealthy merchant couple, U Set Shwin and his wite Daw Bwa, both members of the ethnic Chinese minority, who wished to build a worthy kyaung for the monk Hsaya-daw, who was renowned for his scholarship memorization of the entirety of the Buddhist Pali canon—a distinction that merited him the prestigious title Tipiṭakadhara.
Work on the monastery was completed in 1895, producing a building of monumental proportions. Its platform alone, raised two meters above ground level, required 167 oiled teak pillars.
The ruddy shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), known in India as the Brahminy duck, is a member of the family Anatidae. It is a distinctive waterfowl, 58 to 70 cm (23 to 28 in) in length with a wingspan of 110 to 135 cm (43 to 53 in). It has orange-brown body plumage with a paler head, while the tail and the flight feathers in the wings are black, contrasting with the white wing-coverts. It is a migratory bird, wintering in the Indian subcontinent and breeding in southeastern Europe and central Asia, though there are small resident populations in North Africa. It has a loud honking call.
The ruddy shelduck mostly inhabits inland water-bodies such as lakes, reservoirs and rivers. The male and female form a lasting pair bond and the nest may be well away from water, in a crevice or hole in a cliff, tree or similar site. A clutch of about eight eggs is laid and is incubated solely by the female for about four weeks. The young are cared for by both parents and fledge about eight weeks after hatching.
".....In Myanmar, in Burmese monasteries, Brahminy duck is known as Hinthar...." [see below article]
Brahminy ducks: The Chakwa-Chakwi love birds of India
A pair of Ruddy Shelduck ducks is flapping frantically in the Chambal river in Dholpur, Rajasthan. Banks of clean sand are what these ducks require. Probably the commonest ducks to be seen in winter, and although it may arrive in flocks and break up into pairs as soon as the winter partners have been chosen, yet it is very unusual to see more than twenty-five or thirty birds in one gathering. These are migratory annual visitors to the wetlands and lakes of many parts of India.
In my childhood, our elders used to chide us in Hindi, “Kya Surkhab ke Par Lage hain? (क्या सुर्खाब के पर लगे हैं )?” It meant, do you think you are unique?
I was told that Surkhab is a rare bird and it is found in the Himalayas. Decades later, during my early days of wildlife photography, one day my friend pointed towards a pair of beautiful ducks and said that these ducks are known as Ruddy Shelduck and in Hindi it is known as Surkhab! Later I tried to find out but there were too many confusions but one thing was clear that this duck is an enchanting beauty.
Ruddy Shelduck is also known as Brahminy duck in India. But why is this duck called Brahminy? Is there any caste system in this species also? Is Brahminy linked with Brahmin? My Raju guide said after a long pause, it may be due to their saffron colour that resembled saffron robes of the Brahmins in ancient India, these birds are also revered as sacred by the Buddhists and known as 'Birds of Lama'.
In Myanmar, in Burmese monasteries, Brahminy duck is known as Hinthar. In Tibet and Mongolia, these ducks are considered sacred by Buddhists. In Hindi, the male duck is known as Chakwa and female Chakwi. They are called “lovebirds” because according to tradition, they’re always found in pairs. In Indian aesthetics, the bird symbolises conjugal fidelity.
Legend has it that Chakravaka birds are reborn lovers who had committed the 'sin' of disturbing sages at their meditation in their former life. The sages cursed the lovers to turn into ducks: worse, the pair had to separate after sundown and was, therefore, reduced to calling one another piteously through the night!
These are the same birds that ‘Satvahana’ artists carved on Buddhist friezes stupas of Ashoka.
In ancient India, artists immortalised these birds by depicting them in the Buddhist Wheel of Life called Bhavachakra. In Mahayana Buddhist tradition, Buddha himself designed the first Bhavachakra to help ordinary people to understand his teachings. The story of how the Buddha passed on the drawing to King Rudrayana through King Bimbisara of Magadha appears in an anthology of Buddhist narratives called The Divyavadana.
Back to the modern time, the Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), is a member of the family Anatidae. It has a body length of 58-70 cm with a wingspan of 110-135 cm. It is a distinctive duck having rusty brown plumage with prominent metallic-green speculum and white wing coverts. The head is pale, turning almost white near the face. It has black tail, beak, legs and primaries. The wings have white feathers that are inconspicuous when the bird is resting, but become visible once it is in flight. In flight it looks heavy, more like a goose than a duck.
These birds can traverse long distances, crossing into India over the mighty Himalayas (Photo: Mrityunjoy Kumar India)
The sexes are similar but the males have a dark ring-like collar at the bottom of their neck that becomes prominent during breeding season. There is a strong pair bond between the male and female and it is thought they pair for life. Mating takes place on the water after a brief courtship ritual involving neck stretching, head dipping and tail raising.
According to a first ever study on these ducks by the researchers of England, Ruddy Shelducks scale the mighty Himalayas when they migrate to India from the north attaining heights of 6,800 metres. Scientists from the University of Exeter, the UK, had tagged satellite tracking chips on 15 ducks to discover that they fly through valleys in the mountain range–avoiding massive peaks like Mount Everest.
“This species has probably evolved a range of adaptations to be able to cope with flying so high, where oxygen levels are half those at sea level. We don’t yet know the nature of these adaptations, our research also shows that the ruddy shelduck has a faster climb rate than the bar-headed goose – the only waterfowl known to fly even higher,” writes lead researcher Nicole Parr of the University in his research paper.
The Everest is 8,848 m high and these ducks are smart enough to avoid a towering mountain like the Everest.
In the Buddhist Jataka tales, Tale 316 relates that a monkey, an otter, a jackal, and a rabbit resolved to practice charity on the day of the full moon (Uposatha), believing a demonstration of great virtue would earn a great reward. When an old man begged for food from them, the monkey gathered fruits from the trees and the otter collected fish, while the jackal found a lizard and a pot of milk-curd. Knowing only how to gather grass, the rabbit instead offered its own body by throwing itself into a fire the man had prepared. However, the rabbit was not burnt and the old man revealed that he was Śakra. Touched by the rabbit's virtue, he drew the likeness of the rabbit on the Moon for all to see. It is said the lunar image is still draped in the smoke that rose when the rabbit cast itself into the fire. The rabbit is believed to be a Bodhisattva.
A version of this story may be found in the Japanese anthology, Konjaku Monogatarishū, where the rabbit's companions are a fox, instead of a jackal, and a monkey.
The Moon rabbit legend is popular and part of local folklore throughout Asia. It may be found in diverse cultures in China, Japan, India, Korea, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Myanmar.
Bogyoke Aung San (Burmese: ဗိုလ်ချုပ် အောင်ဆန်း; MLCTS: aung hcan:, pronounced [àʊɰ̃ sʰáɰ̃]; 13 February 1915 – 19 July 1947) was a Burmese politician, independence activist and revolutionary. Aung San is the founder of the Myanmar Armed Forces, and is considered the Father of the Nation of modern-day Myanmar. He was instrumental in Burma's independence from British rule, but was assassinated just six months before his goal was realized.
Devoted to ending British rule in Burma, Aung San founded or was closely associated with many Burmese political groups and movements and explored various schools of political thought throughout his life. He was a life-long anti-imperialist and studied communism and socialism as a student, and Japanese Pan-Asianism upon joining the Japanese military. In his first year of university he was elected to the executive committee of the Rangoon University Students' Union and served as the editor of its newspaper. He joined the Thakin Society in 1938, working as its general secretary, and founded both the Communist Party of Burma and the Burma Socialist Party.
Shortly before the outbreak of World War II, Aung San fled Burma to solicit support from Chinese communists but was recruited by Suzuki Keiji, a Japanese army intelligence officer stationed in Thailand, who promised support. Aung San recruited a small core of Burmese revolutionaries later known as the Thirty Comrades and left for Japan. During the Japanese occupation of Burma, he served as the minister of war in the Japan-backed State of Burma led by Dr. Ba Maw. As the tide turned against Japan, he switched sides and merged his forces with the Allies to fight against the Japanese. After World War II, he negotiated Burmese independence from Britain in the Aung San-Atlee agreement. He served as the 5th Premier of the British Crown Colony of Burma from 1946 to 1947. He led his party, the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League, to victory in the 1947 Burmese general election, but he and most of his cabinet were assassinated shortly before the country became independent.
Aung San's daughter, Aung San Suu Kyi, is a stateswoman and politician. She was Burma's State Counsellor and its 20th (and first female) Minister of Foreign Affairs in Win Myint's Cabinet until the 2021 Myanmar coup d'état.