Zapotec Maize God of Abundant Sustenance Pitao Cozobi & Benito Juarez 50 Pesos Mexico Authentic Banknote Money for Collage (Oaxaca) (Palace)
Zapotec Maize God of Abundant Sustenance Pitao Cozobi Funerary Urn & President Benito Juarez 50 Pesos Mexico Authentic Banknote Money for Jewelry and Craft Making (Corn) (Palace of Columns) (National Palace) (Mitla) (Oaxaca) (Zocalo)
Reverse: A Zapotec funerary urn dedicated to the God of Maize (corn), Pitao Cozobi. In the background, the “Palacio de las Columnas” (Palace of Columns) in the archeological site of Mitla, Oaxaca.
Obverse: The portrait of Benito Juárez. In the background, the “Palacio Nacional” (National Palace).
Issuing bank Bank of Mexico
Period United Mexican States (1905-date)
Type Standard banknote
Value 50 Pesos (50 MXP)
Currency Peso (1863-1992)
Size 157 × 67 mm
Demonetized 31 December 1992
Number N# 212493
References P# 65
The Maize God represented in this funerary urn is one of many gods that was revered in the Zapotec culture (600 BC to 900 AD). In Zapotec he was known as Pitao Cozobi, “God of Abundant Sustenance,” a benevolent god that provided life to the people. The Maize God is also referred to as the “God of Glyph L,” in classification systems developed by archaeologists. Sitting cross-legged, he wears a headdress, corn cobs (maize), large ear plugs, a jade necklace, and a loin cloth.
Zapotec urns usually depict different gods that are representative of the forces of nature. These urns were placed as offerings in tombs and temples.
Mitla is the second-most important archeological site in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico, and the most important of the Zapotec culture. The site is located 44 km from the city of Oaxaca, in the upper end of the Tlacolula Valley, one of the three cold, high valleys that form the Central Valleys Region of the state. At an elevation of 4,855 ft (1,480 m), surrounded by the mountains of the Sierra Madre del Sur, the archeological site is within the modern municipality of San Pablo Villa de Mitla. It is 24 mi (38 km) southeast of Oaxaca city. While Monte Albán was the most important politically of the Zapotec centers, Mitla became the main religious one in a later period as the area became dominated by the Mixtec.
The name Mitla is derived from the Nahuatl name Mictlán, meaning the "place of the dead" or "underworld." Its Zapotec name is Lyobaa, which means “place of rest.” The name Mictlán was Hispanicized or transliterated to Mitla by the Spanish colonists. It was established as a sacred burial site by the Zapotec, but the architecture and designs also show the influence of the Mixtec, who had become prominent in the area during the peak of Mitla settlement.
Mitla is unique among Mesoamerican sites because of its elaborate and intricate mosaic fretwork and geometric designs that cover tombs, panels, friezes, and even entire walls of the complex. These mosaics are made with small, finely cut and polished stone pieces that have been fitted together without the use of mortar. No other site in Mexico has this decorative work.
To the south of the Church Group is the Columns Group, whose main building is called the Palace. This group has two entrances to the outside, which face south. The entrance room contains immense columns which support the roof. The north wall has a small opening facing the patio, believed to be used to pass into the afterlife.
The main building is called the Palace or the Grand Hall of Columns. It measures 120 by 21 feet (36.6 by 6.4 m) and has six columns of volcanic stone that once supported the roof. After passing through a small corridor, access is gained to the courtyard, which is intricately decorated in mosaic fretwork and geometric designs. The north and east buildings of the group have elaborate tombs where high priests and Zapotec rulers were buried. In front of the stairs of the north building is a cross-shaped tomb with an antechamber. The ceiling has large beams made of stone, and the walls are decorated with tablets and stone fretwork. The east building is characterized by a monolithic stone column that supports the roof.
Benito Pablo Juárez García (Spanish: [beˈnito ˈpaβlo ˈxwaɾes gaɾˈsi.a]; 21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and politician, who served as the 26th president of Mexico from 1858 until his death in 1872. He was the first president of Mexico who was of indigenous origin. Born in Oaxaca to a poor Zapotec rural family and orphaned when he was young, he moved to Oaxaca City at the age of 12 to go to school. He was aided by a lay Franciscan, and enrolled in seminary, later studying law at the Institute of Sciences and Arts and becoming a lawyer. After being appointed as a judge, in his 30s he married Margarita Maza, a socially prominent woman of Oaxaca City. From his years in college, he was active in politics. Appointed as head justice of the nation's Supreme Court, Juárez identified primarily as a Liberal politician. In his life, he wrote briefly about his indigenous heritage.
When moderate liberal President Ignacio Comonfort was forced to resign by the Conservatives in 1858, Juárez, as head of the Supreme Court, assumed the presidency and the two governments competed. His succession was codified in the Constitution of 1857 but he survived in internal exile for a period during which he signed the McLane-Ocampo Treaty in 1859. He weathered the War of the Reform (1858–1860), a civil war between the Liberals and the Conservatives, and the French invasion (1861–1867), which was supported by Conservative monarchists. Never relinquishing office, although forced into exile to areas of Mexico not controlled by the French, Juárez tied Liberalism to Mexican nationalism. He asserted his leadership as the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian, whom the French had installed.
When the French-backed Second Mexican Empire fell in 1867, the Mexican Republic with Juárez as president regained full power. For his success in ousting the European incursion, Latin Americans considered Juárez's tenure as a time of a "second struggle for independence, a second defeat for the European powers, and a second reversal of the Conquest."
Juárez is revered in Mexico as "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." He understood the importance of a working relationship with the United States, and secured its recognition for his government during the War of the Reform. He held fast to particular principles, including the supremacy of civil power over the Catholic Church and part of the military; respect for law; and the depersonalization of political life. Juárez sought to strengthen the national government, asserting its central power over the states, a position that both radical and provincial liberals opposed.
After his death, the city and state of Oaxaca added "de Juarez" to their formal names in his honor, and numerous other places and institutions were named for him. His birthday (21 March) is celebrated as a national public and patriotic holiday in Mexico. He is the only individual Mexican to be so honored.
The National Palace (Spanish: Palacio Nacional) is the seat of the federal executive in Mexico. Since 2018 it has also served as the official residence for the President of Mexico. It is located on Mexico City's main square, the Plaza de la Constitución (El Zócalo). This site has been a palace for the ruling class of Mexico since the Aztec Empire, and much of the current palace's building materials are from the original one that belonged to the 16th-century leader Moctezuma II.